Structural Shop Drawings


Structural Shop Drawings are precise details of how you will make equipment/buildings and how the final result will be. So, "prefabrication drawings" are also called "fabrication drawings." They ensure that all parts are made together and in line with all relevant industry rules.

After structural steel shop drawings are final, the next step in the prefabrication process is to make shop drawings. The process starts with these drawings, which are more detailed and accurate than design and construction drawings.

Why are Shop Drawings Important?

Since the main focus of Steel Shop Drawings Services is on the product or installation, data on other goods and installations are not included unless they are part of the product. The main reason Structural Shop Drawings are so helpful is that they focus more on how to make something than on what the original design was supposed to do. Documenting the project's requirements is important if you want to be sure you're meeting customer expectations. Depending on whether they show the beginning, middle, or end of a project, drawings can be called Elevation, Section, or Detail.

  • In an elevation sketch, the view is usually that of a person standing before the drawing starts.
  • The sectional view shows the most important parts of the building. These show how things will be and how much space between them.
  • Detail views are at a much bigger size than Sections. They are to draw attention to the small steps to make a certain part.

Suppose you're using AstCAD or a similar program. In that case, it's important to know that you'll have access to many helpful tools and suggestions that will make it easy to make your Shop drawings. You can change and improve drawings more precisely and quickly with commands. You may find keyboard shortcuts as useful as the menu options when making drawings in Shop.

Wrapping Up

Structural steel shop drawings made from plans by the registered professional of record should include drawing numbers, revision numbers, and clause references. The design loads or amounts given by the designer expert must be shown in clear detail on the shop drawings. To keep things from being misunderstood, the codes used to make the shop drawings must be clear. Shop drawings ensure that all the information is correct since engineers might be unable to handle some of the more complicated parts. Our Structural Shop Drawings Services are top-notch in the industry.

architectural design

What are the architectural design and drafting services?

“Architectural design” is a broad term that includes both the technical and creative parts of the field. It means understanding building materials and shapes and designing and making buildings. Architects usually plan their work to fit both the inside and outside of a building. Still, designs can be deadly when they go against what people want and what is expected of them.

Through architectural design services, the client’s ideas come to life. The first step in these services is building planning and design. Engineers tend to care more about how things work than architects do. When people use architectural design services, they can write down their creative ideas. To succeed in this field, you’ll need to know how to use computers, understand the law, understand how engineering works, and follow building codes.

Reasons Why Good Architecture Is Crucial

Structures inside the built environment significantly affect the built environment as a whole. When putting up a new building, it’s important to think about how it will work, how long it will last, how it will look, and how it will affect the neighborhood. The best-quality architecture will amaze and shock people with its unique and stylish design. Homes and neighborhoods that make people feel good will always be in demand. Living in a dull, boring place is a surefire way to kill your ideas and creativity.

Instances when Architectural Plans Can Be Used:

Dimensional Modeling in Building Design

Floor plans, wall sections, elevations, lighting plans, furniture designs, foundation diagrams, and roof sections are all referred to by this term.

Proficient 3D Modeling for Buildings

It can make exterior 3D models, interior 3D models, cross-sections, and fixture assemblies. Similarly, landscape architects employ it in their design processes.

Rendering in Three Dimensions for Buildings

It can produce 3D-rendered images of the outside, inside, on furniture, and off of products.

Animation and Exploration in Three Dimensions

Exterior and interior tours, as well as conceptual and industrial tours, are all part of the package.

A building plan is just a set of instructions for how to build something well. Such ideas can come from a thorough look at the site, research into the history and culture of the area where you want to build, or an analysis of how different technologies and techniques could be used to meet a wide range of practical needs.

Want to make your dream house a real place to live? Or maybe you have a great plan for making your office better? With the help of experts, all of your hopes and dreams for the infrastructure can come true. These people are trained architects who can put what you have in mind on paper.

Look online for architectural design firms with a form for entering your home’s basic plan or details like the rooms, the balcony, the style, and anything else you’d like to include. Astcad is a place where you can get Architectural Design Services. They offer 2D drawings and 3D images made on a computer with CAD software.

What is architectural drafting?

Drafters make house plans under the direction of architects, who describe the layout and materials used inside and the driveways, garden beds, fences, and roof types for the outside. These are plans for a house or another building.

Architects and engineers used to draw by hand with pencils, rulers, and protractors. Now, almost all drawings are made with a computer-aided design (CAD) program.

The computer-assisted design uses a computer to make a technical picture of a thing or building in three dimensions. This is more efficient and accurate than traditional drawing methods. The electronic version has more information and more options. Architectural Drafting Service uses CAD and ArchiCAD to make most of its plans and designs.

Drafting & Cad Design by men



CAD or computer-aided design is a technique of designing complex 2D or 3D models of parts, machines, and buildings using computer-based software before enacting the actual design. Drafting a rough but abstract draft before the real work helps the designer test the product design.

How to use CAD design & drafting services in the design process?

The production support system includes components for product design and associated CAD/CAM systems. The classic design process comprises six steps: recognizing design needs, problem formulation, synthesis, analysis and optimization, evaluation, and presentation.

The best tools to use for CAD design-specific tools and techniques are CAD Designers, including Siemens NX, AutoCAD, CATIA, Solid works, Inventor, etc. You may build the world of your dreams with all these tools and cutting-edge technology.

What are the steps involved in the CAD designing and drafting service?

The significant stages of Developing CAD designing and drafting standards are

  • Meta Stage.
  • Development Stage.
  • Execution Stage.

The role of cad designing and drafting services in industrial product designing 

It is the current trend in the field of design in contemporary times. Many significant firms outsource their CAD design and CAD design engineer rather than invest in internal infrastructure. The sole reason is that it offers a range of benefits to organizations.

A few major benefits are:

  • Minimal expenditure on additional equipment and labour during product design.
  • The reliability and professionalism of these services are way better and faster than any else.
  • It saves a lot of time the company will invest in brainstorming, planning, and plotting the design.
  • Minimize the risk of the failure of the design.
  • Protects the privacy of the product designs.
  • Saves money, and labour goes behind designing
  • Involvement of dedicated designers who know their work well and know how to get the result right with minimum resources and time.

In usual practice, when companies draft the design by themselves, it demands a good amount of money for a single project which sometimes churns their economy.

But you can expect many perks when you deal with Australian Designing and Drafting Services. We will save a good amount of money on CAD drafting services and CAD designing.

It is a great deal for companies trying to establish their feet in the market and for well-established companies.

These services guarantee exceptional results to any in-house workforce accessible in businesses, and they frequently do their work in a fraction of the time.

Our staff knows tier work and delivery only what the client has asked for with their designs.

Last but not least, the benefits involved with outsourcing Drafting services Melbourne & Perth for CAD design and drafting services have the lowest chance of risk. When you decide to outsource your design work with us, be assured that you will only get the best possible result in minimal time. We also guarantee the confidentiality of your design.

Shop Drawings For Steel Fabrication

Shop Drawings for Steel Fabrication

The construction industry is a vast concept to study. It is the root of creations worldwide, without which we can hardly imagine a home. When we talk about the construction industry, we cannot neglect the importance of steel. It is a versatile component of construction projects due to its robust and durable nature.

But have you ever wondered about how the minute detailing on steel structures originated in the first place? The loud and clear answer is structural steel detailing. It is a branch of architectural drawings and designs that allow the fabrication of steel components on structures.

Steel shop drawings are another vital component of structural steel detailing. They form the base of steel structures by connecting the fabricators, contractors, suppliers, architects, and manufacturers. Hence, let us dig deeper into how steel shop drawings impact the steel fabrication industry.

How do steel shop drawings help?

Steel shop drawings provide deep insights into how various steel components fit into steel structures. They cover all the sections and views of various steel parts of a construction project.

Steel shop drawings are usually created by the fabricators, contractors, manufacturers, etc., to depict their version of the steel construction project. They create them considering the dimensions of various steel components and the fabrication standards to make the fabrication of steel easy and convenient for everyone involved in the project.

It also depicts how welding and bolting need to be done with every minute detail leading to the final erection of the structure. Hence, shop drawings for steel fabrication are smart ways to increase the profitability of steel construction projects.

Steel shop drawings are about construction and erection details on steel components, such as ladders, stairs, frames, truss, beams, columns, etc. Hence, you can say that these figures and drawings are a strong preparation for a strong and long-lasting structure.

What are the features of steel shop drawings?

Steel shop drawings come with features to build a steel construction project from scratch and take it to the heights of the sky. These are

  • They differ from architectural drawings as the focus is entirely on the steel components.
  • They inform the people involved in the project about the steel components, design, and fabrication methods.
  • They provide step-by-step instructions for the steel fabrication involved in construction projects.


Steel is a vital material used in construction projects due to its versatility. Steel shop drawings help fabricate them with utmost ease and efficiency. They not only add quality and value to the steel structures but also help enhance the cost-effectiveness and profitability of the projects.

So, now that you know about the importance of shop drawings for steel fabrication, you can hire fabrication shop drawings experts for your construction projects. Australian design and drafting service is the perfect place to find shop drawing experts.

It is a CAD engineering company that solves all your architectural and structural steel detailing requirements under one roof. Hence, you can step ahead into the grand world of steel structures through shop drawings for steel fabrication with Australian design and drafting services.


Structural steel detailing

What is structural steel detailing?

Construction projects are the keys to the creation of a modern world. They need immense planning and architectural design to create the most efficient and robust structures.

Structural steel detailing is a part of drawing and model development. The contractors and fabricators must hold it in high regard while working with residential and commercial construction projects. Now that you might wonder what structural steel detailing stands for and why it is essential, here is all you need to know about it.

Structural steel detailing is the method of creating drawings and designs for steel components of structural projects. The steel components include steel columns, steel joists, trusses, handrails, metal decking, stairs, etc.

Structural steel detailing of these components ensures the strength and integrity of structures. On failing to undergo structural steel detailing, the construction projects might prove inefficient and pose numerous threats to life and property.

Hence, engineers, steel fabricators, contractors, and architects use structural steel detailing to make reliable and durable steel components to erect structures.

What are the types of structural steel detailing?

Two types of structural steel detailing are involved in the construction industry. The drawings used in the process are divided into erection and shop drawings.

  1. Erection drawings: erection drawings are essential components of structural steel detailing. They involve the dimensional and geographical planning and positioning of the steel components of structures. It helps install the steel components and the external works required on them.
  1. Shop drawings: shop drawings deal with further detailing of the steel components. It involves illustrating columns, joints, and steel beams, considering the components' material specifications, size, and dimensions. Structural detailing steel shop drawings help in the assembly of the steel components.

What is the importance of structural steel detailing?

Structural steel detailing is significant in the construction industry. Numerous reasons support the statement. It provides a well-designed plan for construction involving steel components. It not only helps contractors and engineers erect a versatile structure but also prevents accidents that could arise due to miscalculations in the size and dimensions of the components. It also links the engineers, contractors, fabricators, and architects involved at different project stages to keep them on the same page.

How does the computer-aided design make structural steel detailing efficient?

Computer-aided design helps automate the designing and drawing of various steel components. It provides facilities for both 2D and 3D drawings with a top-notch presentation. Moreover, the measurements and calculations are precise and accurate due to the least human error. Hence, ultimately it reduces manual effort and time used in construction projects.

In fact, we use premium software like TEKLA, Solidworks and inventor to make these designs. It helps us attain perfection and deliver quality work to our customers.


Steel is a versatile element used in the construction of vast structures and buildings, both commercial and residential. However, structural detailing is essential to make the best use of steel components to erect structures. Structural steel detailing comes to your rescue here. It can be used for creating both erection and shop drawings. Moreover, CAD adds life to structural steel drawings with utmost accuracy and precision. Hence, structural steel detailing is the key to unlocking construction projects now.

Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)



The computer-aided engineering (CAE) method mainly uses computers to analyse, design, and manufacture a product, project, and process. CAE relates to elements of CADD in industry. CAE often work as a recognised umbrella discipline that involves a lot of computer-aided technologies that are not limited to CAD, computer-aided industrial design (CAID), CNC, CAD/CAM, PDM and CIM, plus the Internet and other technologies that collaborate on various projects. Talking about CAE it often focuses on mechanical design and product development automation.

Its most familiar elements of CAE where simulation and solid modelling, analysis, optimisation and testing of mechanical structures. It adds a system that uses digital prototypes. FEA is a kind of process that is often associated with Computer-Aided engineering. 


Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) service companies relate to computer-aided technologies that offer revolutionary tools for engineers and drafters during the engineering design process. CADD enhances design efficiency, creativity, and effectiveness in product development. There are a lot of different forms that accept engineering design processes and integration of CADD within the engineering design process. Get a simplified sample of an engineering design process for a lifting hook.

Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)

The lifting hook is one best example, and the following information is an introduction to CADD in the engineering design process.

STEP - 1

Step 1 helps to identify the problem along with adding design constraints. It comes with a constraint and a condition adding a specific shape, size, or requirement. It defines a design that satisfies to achieve a successful design. The problem statement describes the requirements and constraints for a forged-steel lift hook that support a 3000-pound load.

STEP - 2

Step 2 offers a sketch of the initial design based on the solution to the problem. The sketch comes with hand-drawn that use CADD as a sketching tool. CADD systems require the creation of a digital sketch as an element of the CADD process. The hand-drawn sketches come with a common practice that especially comes during early design.

STEP - 3

Step 3 can generate an initial three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) solid model according to the hand-drawn sketch. Using finite element analysis (FEA) software, you can study the model. Here, FEA applies the finite element method (FEM) to solve mathematical equations related to engineering design problems, including structural and thermal issues.

STEP - 4

Step 4 offers structural stress analysis applied to that lifting hook to simulate a real-world lift.

STEP - 5

Step 5 optimise the design to reduce material with improving shape while maintaining a sufficient working strength. Users can perform design optimisation, adding manual calculations and tests and repeated FEA simulations. It offers an optimised lift hook with CAD solid model.

STEP - 6

Step 6 can re-analyse the model that confirms a solution to the design problem.

STEP - 7

The last step 7 is to use the CAD solid model to prepare two-dimensional (2-D) detail drawings and a digital model format supported by computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software. The manufacturer mainly uses the supplied data to create the forging equipment necessary to produce the lifting hook.


A wide variety of jobs are currently available for qualified CADD professionals. Note that the kinds of tasks they may allow is always traditional. In addition to this, they create drawings that are responsible for working in some of the following areas, including:

  • To prepare freehand sketches on the shop floor and convert the sketch with finished CADD drawing.
  • To include Digital image creation and editing.
  • To provide text documents, including proposals, reports, and studies.
  • To incorporate CADD images and drawings into text documents.
  • To conduct research for job proposals, purchasing specifications and feasibility studies.
  • To evaluate and test new software with ease.
  • To train the staff members by using new software or procedures.
  • To collect vendor product information for new projects.
  • To speak on the phone and deal personally with clients, vendors, contractors, and engineers.
  • To check design and drawings by creating accuracy.
  • To research computer equipment and prepare bid specifications for purchase.

We often hire employees who possess good tech skills to become good employees. The best jobs that we can find here are those students who developed an excellent understanding of the project planning process and can easily handle any situation.

The process is based on the person’s ability to communicate. It helps to apply solid math skills through trigonometry with exhibiting good problem-solving skills. We know how to use resources and conduct research by getting all data. We can serve general qualifications foundation by adding more specific skills to our study. It includes good working knowledge of drawing layout and construction techniques. Based on applicable standards, it adds a good grasp of CADD software mainly used for creating models and drawings.

In addition, we support you in customising the CADD software that better suits your needs. What is most essential for the prospective drafter to remember. Content applies to the lot of details of an object, situation and procedure. If we are given enough time, then we can find all of the pieces of information required to complete a task.

Here the process refers to a method of doing something. It involves several steps that come with learning a helpful process and making it easier to complete all tasks. We can find all of the content you require and understand an exemplary problem-solving method. It comes with project planning and is used in any situation. We can use the process to make the task easier and determine what content would be beneficial.

There are many more reasons that we strongly recommend you focus on your efforts. We learn and establish good problem-solving habits. Using the skills to locate the content, all we need for any project is to make all aspects of your life productive, efficient, and relaxing. We at Australian Design & Drafting Services company are ready to offer excellent CAD Design and Drafting services. Contact Us to give wings to your project.




A prototype is a functional part model of design; it is used as the basis for continuing the production of the final part or assembly. The terms prototype and model are often used interchangeably. Prototypes are used to determine if a new design works as intended. A prototype is commonly used as part of the product design process to enable engineers and designers to explore design alternatives, determine unknown characteristics in the design, finalize part tolerances, confirm customer interest in the design, verify design performance, coordinate with marketing and sales, and test theories before starting full production of a new product.
A variety of processes can be used to create a prototype. The processes range from creating a digital model to developing a solid physical model of a part directly from a 3-D CAD model data and to fabricating a model using standard manufacturing processes. A company generally contracts with another company that specializes in developing prototypes quickly and accurately. Some companies have their own prototype development departments. A prototype is generally different from the final production part because special processes and materials are used to quickly create a part that can be used to simulate the actual part.
The development phase of the design process is when a fully functioning prototype model is made that operates at the desired quality level. A physical prototype can be machined, molded, or created using rapid prototyping processes. Parts are assembled into the desired product and then tested to determine if the design meets specifi c product requirements such as weight and performance. The design might have to return to the concept phase for reevaluation if some aspects of the design do not perform as intended or manufacturing process appears to be too costly. After the functioning prototype has been built and tested, drawings are created for continuing to full production of the product.


digital prototyping model

A digital prototype is a computer-generated model or original design that has not been released for production. The most common and useful digital prototype is a 3-D solid model. A solid model digital prototype functions much like a physical prototype, is often just as or even more accurate, and can be subjected to real-world analysis and simulation. Digital prototyping is the method of using CAD to help solve engineering design problems and provide digital models for project requirements. Successful digital prototyping offers several ben-efi ts to the engineering design process. It provides companies with a deeper understanding of product function, enables the simulation of product performance as part of a complete system, offers interactive and automatic design optimization based on requirements, and assists other areas of product development and coordination.
Digital prototyping can support all members of a product development team and help communication. Designers, engineers, and manufacturers use digital prototyping to explore ideas and optimize and validate designs quickly. Salespeople and marketers use digital prototyping to demonstrate and describe products. Depending on product requirements and company practices, digital prototyping can reduce or eliminate the need for physical prototypes, which are often expensive and time-consuming to create and test. The figure shows an example of digital prototyping to model, analyze, simulate, and visualize products in a virtual environment.



rapid prototyping model

Rapid prototyping is a manufacturing process by which a solid physical model of a part is made directly from 3-D CAD model data without any special tooling. An RP model is a physical 3-D model that can be created far more quickly than by using standard manufacturing processes. Examples of RP are stereolithography (SLA) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), or 3-D printing.
Three-dimensional CAD software such as AutoCAD, Autodesk Inventor, NX, Pro/Engineer, and SolidWorks allows you to export an RP fi le from a solid model in the form of a .stl file. A computer using postprocessing software slices the 3-D CAD data into .005–.013 in. thick cross-sectional planes. Each slice or layer is composed of closely spaced lines resembling a honeycomb. The slice is shaped like the cross-section of the part. The cross-sections are sent from the computer to the rapid prototyping machine, which builds the part one layer at a time.
The SLA and FDM processes are similar, using a machine with a vat that contains a photosensitive liquid epoxy plastic and a flat platform or starting base resting just below the surface of the liquid as shown in Figure. A laser-controlled with bi-directional motors is positioned above the vat and perpendicular to the surface of the polymer. The first layer is bonded to the platform by the heat of a thin laser beam that traces the lines of the layer onto the surface of the liquid polymer. When the first layer is completed, the platform has lowered the thickness of one layer. Additional layers are bonded on top of the first in the same manner, according to the shape of their respective cross-sections. This process is repeated until the prototype part is complete.
Another type of rapid prototyping called solid object 3-D printing uses an approach similar to inkjet printing. During the build process, a print head with a model and support print tip create the model by dispensing a thermoplastic material in layers.

The printer can be networked to any CAD workstation and operates with the push of a few buttons as shown in Figure.
Rapid prototyping has revolutionized product design and manufacture. The development of physical models can be accomplished in significantly less time when compared to traditional machining processes. Changes to a part can be made on the 3-D CAD model and then sent to the RP equipment for quick reproduction. Engineers can use these models for design verification, sales presentations, investment casting, tooling, and other manufacturing functions. In addition, medical imaging, CAD, and RP have made it possible to quickly develop medical models such as replacement teeth and for medical research.


rapid injection molding prototyping by rapid injection molding rapid injection molding protoryping

Rapid injection molding is an automated process of designing and manufacturing molds based on customer-supplied 3-D CAD part models. Because of this automation, lead time for the initial parts is cut to one-third of conventional methods. Cost-saving varies with the number of parts being produced, but rapid injection molding can also have a substantial cost advantage in runs of up to thousands of parts. Rapid injection molding produces quality molds using advanced aluminium alloys and precise, high-speed CNC machining. Parts can be molded in almost any engineering-grade resin. The figure shows the 3-D CAD part model, the injection molded part in the mold, and the resulting rapid injection molded part.


Subtractive Rapid Pr ototyping

Subtractive Rapid

 Rapid Prototyping Subtractive

CNC machining of parts has been around for decades, but the use has typically not been applied to short lead-time prototype development. Subtractive rapid prototyping uses proprietary software running on large-scale computers to translate a 3-D CAD design into instructions for high-speed CNC milling equipment. The result is the manufacturing of small quantities of functional parts very fast, typically within one to three business days. A variety of materials, including plastics and metal, can be used with sub-tractive rapid prototyping. The figure shows the 3-D CAD part model, the CNC machining process, and the machined part.


Some companies have a machine shop combined with the research-and-development (R&D) department. The purpose of the machine shop is to create prototypes for engineering designs. Drafters generally work with engineers and highly skilled machinists to create design drawings that are provided to the machine shop for the prototype machining. This practice generally takes longer than the previously described practices, but the resulting parts can be used to assemble a working prototype of the product for testing.

Australian Design & Drafting Services provide excellent service for CAD Design and  Drafting. Contact Us for more info

Difference between 2D & 3D Drawings

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The abbreviation for two-dimensional drawing is 2-D. It describes the view that comes with using height, width and length. Or it can be length and length dimensions. It comes with two-dimensional drawings that are established using design and drafting format. They commonly used for all engineering and architectural industries that relates to the disciplines with ease.

The two 2-D views represent the geometry of an aircraft part. It uses two views that come together and provide height, width, and length dimensions. The views mostly appear in the flat format and are rotated at 90 degrees from each other.


It comes with a complete 2-D drawing that include notes, dimensions, and text that describes view details and features. 2D drawings are the conventional and need to use method for communicating a project. Along with this, it uses an effective 2-D drawing accurately with describing design intent and product requirements. It covers the shape, size, and characteristics of all materials, features, finishes, and manufacturing methods.


A 2D drawing comes with typical documents that add project data for individuals and companies that are involved in the project. It covers relevant dates, design and approvals based on revision history. The 2D drawings offer computer numerical control (CNC) machine code. When compared with 3D surface and solid models, 2D drawings use few options to present and visualise the ideas. and limited ability to analyze and test product design. In addition, 2D drawings sometimes can be difficult to understand, if the reader is unfamiliar with interpreting 2D drawings.


The abbreviation for three-dimensional is 3-D. It describes an object that have a height, a width, and depth dimensions. A wire-frame model offers the most basic 3-D CAD model, and contains data about object vertices and edges. The word vertices are plural when used for vertex. It points the edges that intersect. The wireframe is a term that describe the appearance of the model if they are constructed using wires.


Talking about three-dimensional surface, then it’s used as solid modelling placed in wireframe modelling in the CAD industry. The wireframe models come with a limited models use because they lack mass and surfaces. Without using the surfaces, the wireframe models are most difficult to visualise. It comes with creating an uncertain design intent. It does not require a true representation of a product, and lack volume.

Few tools come with an ability to change or hide the format of the lines fall through object features. It improves visualisation and create a 3-D representation way, along with a view for a 2-D drawing. However, the display can cause confusion. Especially when user view the complex objects. Without using the mass or the volume, the wireframe models come with a limited ability to analyse and test products.

A wireframe model comes with a small file size that offer fast display regeneration, store edge and vertex data. Whereas, the Wireframe models serve as a basis to construct 3-D surface and solid models. It provides the geometry for 2-D drawings. One can rotate and repurposing a wireframe model by producing the 2-D views. The Wireframe models uses 3D CNC machine code with ease.



A surface model use data about object vertices, edges, and surfaces. It comes with an outer boundary object that connects to vertices and edges. The surfaces display shade, color, reflection, and texture that helps to improve visualisation. Surfaces reduce uncertainty about design intent and offer a true representation of a product. Surface modelling provides the ability to create complex curves and forms.


3D surface modelling is commonly used for CAD industry, particularly used for conceptual design and industrial design to construct certain shapes. A surface model has zero thickness, lacks mass, and do not enclose a volume. The Surface models allow uses basic calculations that includes surface area and volume, but without mass. It comes with limited ability to analyse and test physical and inertial properties. With time the most common users of surface models are designers that primarily concerned with the external shape and appearance of a product.


The hull design is a common application for surface modelling. The automobile body panel is another example of a product that needs to have an accurate surface. It covers animations, video games, virtual reality programs, and other programs that use similar requirements to form complex surfaces, especially when solids are unnecessary and file size is generally smaller than solid model files.

Surface models serve as a basis to construct 3-D solid models, and provide the geometry for 2-D drawings. It can rotate and repurpose a surface model to produce the 2-D views and display realistic surfaces on the 3-D representation.



3A solid model is one of the most complex CAD formats that contains data about object edges, vertices, surfaces, and mass. Talking about Solid models, it’s most common 3-D CAD format used in the current CAD industry. It encloses a volume and has mass that allows designers and engineers to analyze the exterior and interior object characteristics. In contrast to a 2-D drawing, it offers a note that specifies the material assigned to a product.

gas powered drill solid model

It comes with using 3-D surface model that displays a representation of material on surfaces. It assigns material to a solid model for analysing and testing physical and inertial properties. As a result, a solid model acts as a digital prototype of a product. It provides the geometry for 2-D drawings. We are best Australian Design & Drafting Services company to offer excellent CAD Design and Drafting. Contact Us to clear your doubts.

different types of cadd formats



There are several different CADD formats. The most recognized CADD formats include 2D drawings and 3D wireframe, surface, and solid models. In general, 2-D drawings and 3-D solid models are the most common CADD formats currently used in the industry. Three-dimensional surface models are also widely used, but often for specific applications. Three-dimensional wireframe models are rare in the current industry. Software specifies the CADD format, which usually focuses on a certain process such as 2-D drawing or 3-D solid modeling.

However, some systems offer tools for working in a variety of formats or the ability to use drawing or model content created in a different format. For example, you can often develop a 2D drawing from 3D model geometry or build a 3-D solid model from 3-D surface model geometry. A software add-on or separate application is sometimes required to work with multiple CADD formats.


Several factors influence CADD software and format selection. Design and drafting practices and specific project requirements are primary considerations. Two-dimensional drawings are often required because they are the standard format in manufacturing and construction.

The figure shows a 2-D structural detail required for the construction of a building. In addition, 2-D drawing is effective for a project that is quick to design, does not require extensive revision, and does not require advanced visualization, simulation, and analysis. Three-dimensional solid modeling is a better solution when a complex project will require extensive revision and when advanced visualization, simulation, and analysis are required. A 3-D representation of a design can help overcome visualization problems and produce a realistic, testable product model.


The figure shows a multidiscipline 3D model of a building providing structural, electrical, HVAC, and piping layouts. When applied correctly, a combination of CADD formats and software may prove most effective for a project. Bringing the advantages of each CADD format together maximizes product design flexibility and effectiveness.

Collaboration and communication during a project also influence CADD software and format selection. Everyone involved in a project must be able to use a common CADD format or be able to easily convert data to a usable format. Costs are another important factor to consider when choosing a CADD software and format. For example, advanced 3-D solid modeling software is generally more expensive than 2-D drafting software. Operating a new or different CADD system also requires training and time to learn. Training is an expense and takes time from projects that produce income. A more capable CAD format, such as 3D solid modeling, is extremely cost-effective for some users, especially over time, but others will never benefit from the initial costs of the software and training. Several additional factors also influence selecting CADD software and format, including choosing a product and a format that is a known industry standard for project requirements, software stability and usability, the availability and effectiveness of support and training, and personal preference.

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COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND DRAFTING (CADD) figureComputer-aided design and drafting (CADD) is the process of using a computer with CADD software for design and drafting applications. Software is the program or instructions that enable a computer to perform specific functions to accomplish a task. CADD refers to the entire range of design and drafting with the aid of a computer, from drawing basic 2-D objects to preparing complex 3-D models and animations. CAD is the acronym for computer-aided design and a common reference to computer-aided drafting. Computer-aided design and computer-aided drafting refer to specific aspects of the CADD process.

CADD offers solutions to most engineering drawing and design problems, and it allows for increasingly complex projects. Several industries and most disciplines related to engineering and architecture use CADD. Most engineering firms and educational institutions that previously used manual drafting practices have evolved to CADD. Professionals have come to rely on the power and convenience of CADD in all aspects of design and drafting. CADD systems include tools to accomplish any drawing and design requirement, such as preparing the 3-D model of a home shown in Figure.


cad workstationThe CADD workstation consists of a variety of computer hardware. Hardware includes the physical components of a computer system, such as the computer, monitor, keyboard, mouse, and printer. The figure shows a modern CADD work-station. A CADD workstation relies on a computer for data processing, calculations, and communication with peripheral equipment. A peripheral is an external computer hardware device that uses the computer to perform functions that the computer cannot handle.
Peripherals provide input, output, and storage functions and services. Input means to put information into the computer that the computer acts on in some way. Input comes from devices such as the keyboard, a mouse or similar input device, or a digitizer. Output refers to information that the computer sends to a receiving device such as a monitor, a plotter, or a printer. Storage refers to disks and drives that allow the operator to store programs, files, symbols, and data.


The modern CADD workstation is powerful, inexpensive, and supports sophisticated CADD software. Many CADD software manufacturers exist, and numerous products are available to meet industry needs. Some CADD software is general purpose and can apply to any discipline. For example, Autodesk, Inc. produces AutoCAD for 2-D and 3-D design and drafting.

Other products focus on a specific CADD technology, industry, or discipline, such as drawings or models of mechanical parts and assemblies or those for architectural, civil, or structural engineering projects.

For example, Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks Corp. offers SolidWorks for 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting that is common in the manufacturing industry. Software specifically designed for CADD in the manufacturing industry is sometimes referred to as mechanical computer-aided design (MCAD) software. Some CADD programs support expanded, third-party, or add-on utilities intended to increase system usefulness for specifi c applications.
The CADD software industry changes constantly. Software manufacturers frequently update existing products or combine, change program names, or eliminate programs to adapt to the rapidly evolving CADD market. Software updates typically include additional and refined tools, increased software stability, and graphical user interface (GUI) enhancements.

The interface describes the items that allow you to input data to and receive outputs from a computer system. The GUI provides the on-screen features that allow you to interact with a software program. New products regularly emerge to respond to innovative technology and project requirements. Larger software manufacturers, such as Autodesk Inc., Dassault Systèmes, Parametric Technology Corporation, and Siemens PLM Solutions hold the greatest number of CADD users, and they traditionally have the ability to expand their products and acquire smaller software companies or existing software.

Some software manufacturers offer products intended to support various aspects of product development. For example, some software companies combine CADD and CAM tools for design, drafting, and manufacturing. A few software companies offer specific applications or software packages to help manage all aspects of a project, known as product life cycle management (PLM). PLM systems include tools for CADD, product data management (PDM) to organize and monitor project data, computer-aided engineering (CAE) for simulation and analysis, CAM, and presentation.

Alibre, Inc.

Alibre provides software generally for CADD in the manufacturing industry. Alibre Design is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program. The Professional version of Alibre Design includes tools for sheet metal design and rendering. The Expert version of Alibre Design provides additional functions such as simulation and FEA, PDM, CAM, and extended translation tools. Translation occurs when converting data from the fi le system of one CADD system to another, and it is often necessary when sharing CADD data with others, such as consultants, manufacturers, and vendors. Most CADD soft-ware includes tools for some level of fi le translation. Separate translation software is available when necessary. Alibre also offers Alibre Personal Edition, which is a 3-D modeling and 2-D drawing software marketed to hobbyists.


Ashlar-Vellum offers basic 2-D and 3-D CADD software. Graphite provides 2-D and 3-D wireframe drawing and modeling capabilities. Argon is a basic 3-D model-ing software for conceptual design, visualization, and translation. Xenon and Cobalt, which include additional functions, are 3-D modeling programs with 2-D drafting capabilities.

Autodesk, Inc.

Autodesk offers a wide variety of soft-ware. AutoCAD is general-purpose 2-D and 3-D CADD software and is the core Autodesk product. Autodesk provides variations of AutoCAD for unique markets, such as Auto-CAD LT for 2-D drafting, AutoCAD Electrical for electrical control system design, and AutoCAD Civil 3-D for civil engineering project design. Additional Autodesk products focus on specifi c CADD technology and industries, such as manufacturing, architecture, construction, infrastructure, media, and entertainment.
Autodesk® Inventor® is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program generally for CADD in the manufacturing industry. Autodesk Inventor provides a comprehensive and flexible set of software for 3-D mechanical design, simulation, design visualization and communication, tooling creation, and 2-D documentation. Autodesk offers Autodesk Inventor Suites that combine Autodesk Inventor, AutoCAD Mechanical, and tools for specifi c applications, such as mold, tube and pipe, and cable and harness design. Some Autodesk Inventor Suites also include simulation and analysis functions. Autodesk Revit is a 3-D building design program with 2-D drafting and documentation capabilities. Versions of Autodesk Revit focus on design for architecture, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP), or building information modeling (BIM) for structural engineering. Autodesk manufactures numerous other software products, including Autodesk Algor Simulation for solid model simulation and FEA, Autodesk Vault for PDM, 3ds Max for 3-D modeling, animation, and rendering, and software to support the sustainable and environmentally friendly design and development.

Bentley Systems, Inc.

Bentley Systems focuses on software for engineering and construction infrastructure design, documentation, and operation. Infrastructure is the structures, facilities, and services required for an economy to function, such as buildings, roads and bridges, water supply and sewer systems, and power-supply and telecommunication systems. Micro Station is a general-purpose 2-D and 3-D CADD soft-ware and is the primary Bentley Systems product. Micro-Station also acts as a platform for other Bentley Systems software. For example, GEOPACK Civil Engineering Suite includes tools for civil engineering and transportation project design. Micro Station PowerDraft is a version of MicroStation mainly for 2-D drafting. Bentley Systems manufactures other software, including Project Wise for PDM, and ProConcrete for 3-D modeling, detailing, and scheduling of reinforced concrete structures.

Dassault Systèmes

Dassault Systèmes brands offer several soft-ware products generally focused on CAD and related technology for the manufacturing industry. CATIA is a project development system and is the main Dassault Systèmes brand product. CATIA provides tools for 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting and tools for specifi c applications, such as mold, tube and pipe, cable and harness, and electronic design. CATIA also offers simulation and analysis, CAM, and PDM functions. The additional Dassault Systèmes brand software focuses on specifi c aspects of PLM.
SolidWorks is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program and is the core Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks (www. brand product. Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks offers a standard version of SolidWorks and suites that incorporate SolidWorks with simulation, analysis, and PDM tools. SolidWorks Simulation includes tools for solid model simulation and FEA. SolidWorks Flow provides fluid-flow simulation and thermal analysis. Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks also manufactures software to support the sustainable and environmentally friendly design and manufacturing.

Google Inc.

Google SketchUp is a software intended to have an easy to use interface for creating, sharing, and presenting 3-D models. Common applications for Google SketchUp include sketching and modeling for visualization during the conceptual design phase of a project and creating presentation drawings that look hand-sketched or photorealistic. Google SketchUp also links to Google Earth for sketching relative to a physical location, such as modeling a building on an actual lot.


GRAPHISOFT focuses on software for the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. ArchiCAD is a 3-D building design program with 2-D drafting and documentation capabilities; it is the main GRAPHISOFT product. MEP Modeler adds 3-D and 2-D MEP functions to ArchiCAD. Virtual Building is a 3-D digital database that tracks all elements that make up a building, allowing the designer to use items such as surface area and volume, thermal properties, room descriptions, costs, product information, and window, door, and finish schedules. Virtual refers to something that appears to have the properties of a real or actual object or experience. GRAPHISOFT also manufactures photo-realistic rendering software and software to support sustainable and environmentally friendly architectural design and construction.

IMSI/Design, LLC

IMSI/Design offers basic CADD software for general-purpose and project-specific applications. TurboCAD is the core IMSI/Design product. IMSI/Design provides variations of TurboCAD for unique markets, such as TurboCAD Designer for 2-D drafting, TurboCAD Deluxe for 2-D drafting and 3-D modeling, and TurboCAD Pro with additional 2-D and 3-D CADD functions. Additional IMSI/Design products focus on specifi c CADD technology and industries, such as Home & Landscape and Instant Architect for basic 2-D and 3-D home design.


Intergraph manufactures software for specific industries and projects, including the design, construction, and operation of plants, ships, offshore facilities, and transportation and utility systems. For example, SmartMarine 3-D is specialized software for 3-D model-ing, design, and documentation of marine structures, such as commercial ships. Intergraph also offers SmartSketch for 2-D drafting.


IronCAD provides software generally for CADD in the manufacturing industry. IRONCAD is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program with PDM functions. A third-party application offers simulation and FEA tools compatible with IRONCAD. INOVATE is a version of IRONCAD with fewer 3-D modeling functions and no 2-D drafting capabilities.

Kubotek Corporation

Kubotek manufactures CADD and CAM software. KeyCreator is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program generally for CADD in the manufacturing industry; it is the chief Kubotek product. Kubotek Validation Tool confirms design accuracy during or after a specifi c activity, such as a design revision or data translation. Kubotek also manufactures KeyMachinest for CAM and maintains CADKEY for 3-D wireframe modeling.

Parametric Technology Corporation

Parametric Technology Corporation, or PTC, offers several software products generally focused on CADD in the manufacturing industry. Pro/ENGINEER is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program and is the core PTC software. PTC provides various additions to the Pro/ENGINEER platform, including tools for CAE, CAM, and PDM: for example, Pro/ENGINEER Mechanica for simulation and FEA, Pro/ENGINEER Piping and Cabling Extension for pipe and cable design, and Pro/ENGINEER Reverse Engineering for automating reverse engineering. Reverse engineering is the process of converting an existing physical product into drawings or digital models, and it involves discovering the technological principles of a device, object, or system by analyzing its structure, function, and operation.

PTC manufactures other software, including Windchill for PDM, CoCreate for CAD, CAE, and PDM, and MathCAD for engineering calculations.

Siemens Corporation

Siemens Corporation offers a wide variety of products and services. The Siemens PLM Solutions (www.plm.automation. brand manufactures PLM software. NX ad-dresses each area of product development, and it is the primary Siemens PLM Solutions software. NX provides tools for 3-D solid modeling, 2-D drafting, and specific applications such as tool and fixture, routed system, and sheet metal product design. NX also offers simulation, FEA, CAM, and PDM functions. In addition to NX, Siemens PLM Solutions produces SolidEdge for 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting, generally for CADD in the manufacturing industry. The additional Siemens PLM Solutions brand software focuses on specifi c aspects of PLM.


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