How CAD Modelling helps Water Distribution Systems?

By using 3D modelling over the past 20 years, we have improved our engineer's ability to design, model, and  fabricate complex parts for various industries. It covers automotive, aerospace, and biomedical. Let's say a tool that helps civil engineers, city planners, and construction crew to plan out networks for water distribution and wastewater management operations using a single mouse click. Such tools are readily available today and assist us in complex optimizations.

If we talk about network engineering, then they are a design of pressurized pipelines that is highly complex and require significant planning and understanding. It helps in regulations and design criteria. It is a highly time-consuming task that requires significant effort and prior knowledge with time.

Even with prior understanding, it offers cumbersome to meet the necessary design criteria. It includes a minimum pipeline slope, spacing between valves, and intersection with existing utilities. Along with adding other applicable quality standards to it.

DESIGN AND OPTIMISATION TOOLS FOR BETTER WATER INFRASTRUCTURE

Consider that your design comes with a water network along with a bottom-up approach. It uses the available water source and adds information on the constituent and tank-mixing in the design. Also, in such a scenario, the common questions might be:

  • How would the water system handle a fire?
  • What is the limitation of design in your water network?
  • Will there be enough water at each fire hydrant?
  • What happens if there comes excess flow from a particular location?
  • Will there be a sufficient flow of water that handles your system requirements?

The CAD programs use 3D modelling designed with complex water distribution systems. It provides the answer to the above questions. Bentley System's Water GEMS runs a stand-alone tool with MicroStation or AutoCAD tools. The Pipe Plan and Innovyze'sInfoWate tools offer a similar solution to it. The above tools are adopted by utility companies, municipalities, townships, and design engineers . They provide efficient design and optimization tools for water infrastructure and networks.

What are the advantages of using CAD to develop water distribution networks?

  • It comes with the ability to visualise the network in a 3D environment.
  • It offers the ability to model pipe pressures.
  • It helps in GPS tagging of the pipe network and existing pipes.
  • It allows designers to determine points of interference and avoid critical problem areas.
  • It has the ability to model-flow rate, loss nodes and pressures.
  • It is mainly used to design for high-flow conditions at a fire, which requires fire hydrants.

CAD REAL-TIME EXAMPLES AND ITS USE IN WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

The  CAD tools  are most likely to be used in civil engineering planning and design. Salt Lake City is used in Utah, and Huntington Beach in California are the two cities that have adopted WaterGEMS software for designing, optimising, and maintaining their water distribution networks. Salt Lake City's water distribution network helps to serve almost half a million residents, including over 1,000 miles of pipes.

It uses a complete geographical information system (GIS) for its water, sewer, and stormwater infrastructure. It is built into a model. It primarily uses WaterGEMS, a city currently building a hydraulic model for the water distribution system. It primarily uses existing data to update and maintain the city's expansion.

The tool mainly determines the optimal pipes that replace pipes. Some customers complained that the flow was insufficient during peak periods. They use guidance where the city can remediate the complaints. Further, they meet the fire department's flow requirement with 1500 gallons per minute for all fire hydrants along with high pressure.

Best Known CAD Tools for Optimisation and Piping Plans

WaterGEMS:

WaterGEMS is a tool used primarily to design, analyse, and optimise  water distribution systems . Several features are used, such as WaterGEMS, covering steady-state and extended-period simulations. Along with constituent-concentration Analysis, source tracing, tank-mixing, water-age, and fire-flow analyses.

Additionally, there are controls used to rule-based logic and pumps for single or variable speed. The tools help users find operational bottlenecks by minimising energy consumption and modelling real-time operations. The critical Analysis is another essential feature that allows users to find the weak links and valves in the water distribution system.

The tool provides the ability to import CAD, GIS, database data and perform the  polyline-to-pipe  conversion from DXF files. The program includes optimisation tools that facilitate and enhance design iterations. It is more impressive that the program can directly link to Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. It was named as SCADAConnect. Here the software tool provides an environment to monitor and control the network in real-time. They use the tool along with the pipe network model monitored in real-time. It allows a comparison of the model with the operation. The problem deficiencies investigate and evaluated using forensic performance analysis.

PipePlan: 

A second tool comes with a similar utility called Innovyze's PipePlan software. It provides a geospatial environment for water network analysis. It was designed for a detailed hydraulic network model. The design engineers produce and validate distribution and transmission line designs iteratively with minimal effort.

PipePlan allows horizontal and vertical alignments that help to define the location of pipe fittings such as bends, air valves, washouts, end caps and tees. It comes with an essential feature of the tool and its interference checking. It comes with automating report intersection with existing/proposed utility networks.

CONCLUSIONS

The tool maintains water distribution networks and goes through the challenging task for governments across the globe. In this context, the CAD software plays a significant role in enabling the proper water flow regulation. Also, it covers cities and urban areas that would continue to expand. Therefore, the tools like WaterGems and PipePlan comes with an even more critical role in providing efficient design and optimized water networks in the future.

Australian Design and drafting Services CAD importance in Product Development

CAD importance in Product Development

CAD and CAM are industrial computer applications, which have greatly reduced the time and cost cycles between initial concepts and product development. They have enabled designers and manufacturers to make significant cost savings. These tools also reduce the time to market for new products, and reduce the number of design flaws, which tend to hamper productivity, and in some cases ground an entire production cycle. Since the 1980s, CAD and CAM have provided exponential gains to both the quantity and quality of products.[/fusion_text][fusion_text]The primary advantages of CAD include the ability to:

  • reduce design cycle times
  • design a complex machine without the need to prototype
  • prototype parts directly from a CAD model
  • reduce low-cost design iterations rapidly
  • alter the designs quickly by changing geometrical parameters
  • view designs or parts under a variety of representations
  • virtually simulate real-world applications

CAM is the use of CAD data to control automated machinery for producing parts designed using CAD. The benefits of linking part fabrication directly to the CAD model include:

  • Direct control of computer numerical control (CNC) or direct numerical control (DNC) systems to produce exact replicas of the designs
  • Ability to skip the engineering drawing phase
  • Reduced part variability

How Boeing Set the Standard for Design Automation?

Boeing is the world’s second-largest defence contractor and a leading manufacturer of aircraft, rockets, and satellites. CAD has played a major role in their product development planning and operations over the past three decades. Boeing announced the development of the 777 in the late 1980s, leading many aviation experts to question their decision. The design of an entirely new aircraft is a highly expensive task, whereas the success of the 747 models had been serving customers for over 30 years led experts to believe that the proper solution was to modify the 747 to suit passenger needs. Boeing applied a new approach that included customer inputs in the design phase from several major airlines, including United Airlines, Nippon Airways, British Airways, Japan Airlines and Cathay Pacific.

More importantly, Boeing invested over $1 billion in design automation using CAD based on CATIA (Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application) and ELFINI (Finite Element Analysis System) to design the new airliner that would turn out to become an industry standard. Both of these software packages were developed by Dassault Systemes of France. Boeing applied the following objectives to guide their break-through process:

  • Reduce aircraft development time significantly
  • Meet customer requirements better by involving them in the development process
  • Eliminate costly modification procedures

As a result, the 777 was the first aircraft in the world to be designed entirely using CAD technology. It was designed to maximize efficiency and quality. The completed design included over 3 million parts! The design process, its innovative features, and Boeing’s approach to manufacturing became the “Gold Standard” for development of future aircraft and were applied to a number of other projects, such as the International Space Station. The design was executed so successfully that a full-scale mock-up of the 777 was never built and was not necessary, reducing the design and production time. In fact, its first flight was so successful that the design was considered one of the most seamless and smoothest to date.

By using CAD models , design engineers were able to provide “built-in” options, which did not need to go to production, such as folding wing-tips. By developing options in CAD, the cost associated with such a trade study and its design is minimized.

What Benefits did Boeing Realize by Automating its Design Process?

To assess the value of the design automation that Boeing implemented in their process by using 3D CAD modelling to design the 777, Boeing compared the effort with their previous design efforts (757 and 767). Overall, they realized:

  • 91% reduction in development time
  • 71% reduction in labour costs
  • Over 3000 assembly interfaces were developed virtually without the need for prototypes
  • Reduction in design and production flaws, mismatches, and associated errors
  • 90% reduction in engineering change requests from approximately 6000 to 600
  • 50% reduction in cycle time for engineering change request
  • 90% reduction in material rework
  • 50 times improvement in assembly tolerances for the fuselage.

It is notable that the design was completed at a time when CAD was not linked directly with FEA and CFD modelling software, but the effort has still been widely accepted as one of the greatest uses of CAD of its time.

The value of CAD modelling is just as valuable on a smaller scale, such as in the bicycle industry. For example, Cannondale is another pioneer that has utilized CAD and CAM technology since the 1990s to reduce its production cycle and reduce manufacturing costs , resulting in significantly higher production rates. As part of their integrated system design approach, Cannondale extended its production capability to produce custom designs for customers that are fit to their individual needs, resulting in over 7000 custom-fit designs that can be produced using their vertical integration production strategy. Their highly advanced model allows the company to maintain a competitive advantage in all aspects of design, performance, and production.

What Lessons can be Learnt from these Pioneers?

  • Leverage customer input early in the design process
  • Use CAD, CAM, and rapid prototyping of models to obtain valuable feedback from all stakeholders, including end customers, manufacturers, and suppliers
  • Reduce design times by applying CAD early in the design process no matter how small, simple, or complex your design.

 

Australian Design and drafting Services Raster to Vector Conversion

Raster to Vector Conversion

Why you need your raster images to move towards vector images? Read on to find out more about Australian  raster to vector conversion.

If you’re looking for a professional and diligent team of experts, we bring the best manual raster to vector conversion. You get the constant need for complex yet accurate drawings from the manufacturing or mechanical engineering industry. We have the best team that offer unique conversion requirements. Raster images show resolution-dependent and do not yield very accurate results. If you still use raster images, it’s time to move towards vector images, as it can generate accurate drawings and images.

With raster to vector conversion, one can effortlessly convert un-editable paper drawings into accurate vector files in the CAD software of your required choice. Later, the converted files can be saved in any  vector format  (WMF, EMF, AI, or EPS DXF). Once you convert your file into a vector, it can be effortlessly read by any CAD program like AutoCAD, Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, Microstation, VectorWorks, FastCAD or TrueCAD. Also, the raster to vector conversion is a direct replacement for traditional tracing and digitizing, which could be less accurate and more time-consuming.

Why use vector images in CAD programs?

We offer top-quality services to retain clients. The CAD programs help to import and display raster files, while you only can look at the file or trace it. Later, you will be unable to change it. It happens when CAD programs only work with vector files. If you want to change a raster file in your CAD program, you need to convert it into a vector file for raster to  vector conversion . Once the file converts into a vector file, you can import it into a CAD program and edit it with ease.

How is a file converted from raster to vector?

  • Initially, a paper drawing is scanned using a scanner and created a raster file.
  • The file from raster to vector passes through raster to vector for conversion.
  • Later, the vector file imports into the CAD program.
  • Users can easily edit vector drawing in the CAD program.

Who requires raster to vector conversion?

  • CAD professionals who require a quick scan, convert and edit drawings using popular CAD programs.
  • Mechanical, electrical and architectural engineers do drawings done by hand and edited in  CAD software .
  • Professionals convert small faxed drawings into vector drawings.
  • Technical professionals use several bitmap drawings and convert their data into an editable vector format.
  • Photo editing professionals convert photos/artwork into vector files for easy engraving or cutting.

Have you tried raster to vector conversion?

We know raster images consist of pixels and get lose when enlarged. Using raster to  vector conversion services  can quickly edit a drawing rather than redraw the entire concept from scratch. One can save countless hours on tracing, redrawing and digitizing. In short, vector graphics are defined as geometrical constructions. Why not choose raster to vector conversion for paper drawings right away? Get to know more about our low-cost, precise and super-fast  raster to vector conversion services.

Australian Design and drafting Services Proof-of-Principle Prototypes

Proof-of-Principle Prototypes

Proof-of-Principle (PoP) Prototypes are one cornerstone of engineering design. PoP, referred to as Proof-of-Concept,  prototyping  is an effective way to rapidly take ideas from intangible designs to tangible, working models. We have a professional team that offers flexibility and build the best PoP model.

Developing these prototypes enables the designer to demonstrate the fundamental technology used in the product that requires fabrication. It allows you to test your solution by ensuring that the functions are intended or envisioned. It creates fabricated prototypes from a CAD model that gives product developers a competitive edge by reducing design iteration times and associated costs.

Our offered services from ASTCAD describes methods, advantages, and disadvantages of the essential  rapid prototyping  processes. It uses product design engineers to meet development milestones. By taking your design from a CAD model to a proof-of-principle prototype, we accelerate design and add new products to market more efficiently. We used the proper process and CAD models that quickly transformed into a working prototype. Get the best intellectual function model with a mechanically feasible solution.

POP PROTOTYPE ADVANTAGES

Advantages Of POP Prototyping Include:

  • Reduces product development time.
  • Makes design flaws apparent.
  • Reduces product development costs.
  • Results in higher quality end products.
  • Offers a demonstration tool for obtaining user feedback.
  • Makes potential future system enhancements clear to engineers and inventors.

POP PROTOTYPE DISADVANTAGES

Disadvantages Of PoP Prototyping Include:

  • It may not include all of the features of a more complex complete system.
  • It cannot be used in place of rigorous system analysis.
  • It may not be representative of the full functionality of the end product.
  • Can lead to over-confidence in the solution.

PROOF-OF-PRINCIPLE PROTOTYPING METHODS AND PROCESSES

We find several ways to design your prototype. It is referred to as  Rapid Prototyping , where the methods offer an initial fabrication of your design. The processes create prototypes which include Additive Processes. It’s the part used to build built-in subsequent layers, where the material is removed to make the final product called Injection Moulding. The thermoplastics are injected into harmful moulds and cast using urethane thermoset resins.

  • The additive processes build using plastic parts are layer by layer directly from a  3D CAD model . The  3D printers  are developed for most additive processes and gained tremendous acclaim.
  • The Stereolithography (SLA) lasers cure thin layers of liquid UV-sensitive photopolymer. The SLA is cost-effective and used to produce intricate parts. It offers the best look and feels with the finished product. However, it tends to make parts that are relatively weak and have little UV stability due to the UV curing process.
  • Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) works similar to SLA. It uses layers of extruded thermoplastic to create the part. The method offers complex, structurally sound roles and can use for limited mechanical and functional testing. The surface finish is poor compared to other methods as defined.
  • Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is one method that creates the best part adhering to layers of polymer powder that cured using a laser. SLS prototypes are made with more complexity than parts made with SLA. Additionally, the details tend to have a rough texture and poor mechanical properties.
  • Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) mainly uses laser-generated heat that sinter thin layers of metal powders, including steel, cobalt-chromium, stainless steel, and titanium, to generate prototypes. DMLS parts offer highly realistic details and are less cost-effective than their plastic counterparts. It often leads designers to produce cheaper plastic and use prototypes that have the product fully machined.
  • The Polyjet uses a process that utilizes jetting heads and UV curing bulbs, which apply consecutive material layers in multiple colours and durometer in a single build. The method offers a representation of multi-material parts with excellent surface finish quality. The mechanical properties use the Polyjet process with ease.
  • Subtractive processes come with raw material and machine away with excess volume to produce a final part.
  • CNC Machining (CNC) is also one the most common example. It uses CNC machining, a part that can be produced from almost any variety of materials that include both plastics and metal. The advantages of CNC machined parts are highly accurate, made with the mechanical properties of the final product, and come with a highly polished and professional finish. Limitations include fewer complex geometries due to the tooling nature and significantly higher costs.
  • Injection Moulding is a popular prototyping process that cures thermoplastics into a mould from soft metal. The process is highly cost-effective and uses only one method representing the volume production fabrication. A wide range of resins is used with different properties and allow the parts to match up with the properties of the final product. The final cost per unit is typically different and is inexpensive, even after factoring in the cost of the mould. Still, the initial non-recurring engineering cost of the mould requires a significant up-front investment.
  • Casting is similar to injection moulding and uses a master model that fabricates using another method like SLA to create a silicone rubber mould. Liquid urethane thermoset resin is then used to generate the prototype. The urethane can be made to match any colour or texture. It uses highly cost-effective parts and has limited use in functional testing.

Whatever your proof-of-principle prototype requires, a suitable rapid prototype is used with a CAD model and material/finish selection. It is essential to consider the method, time to fabricate, cost of the prototype part, and the manufacturer, as the quality of a part varies rapidly between one fabricator and the next.

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