Drafting & Cad Design Services

Drafting & Cad Design Services Role in Industrial Product Design

 

CAD or computer-aided design is a technique of designing complex 2D or 3D models of parts, machines, and buildings using computer-based software before enacting the actual design. Drafting a rough but abstract draft before the real work helps the designer test the product design.

How to use CAD design & drafting services in the design process?

The production support system includes components for product design and associated CAD/CAM systems. The classic design process comprises six steps: recognizing design needs, problem formulation, synthesis, analysis and optimization, evaluation, and presentation.

The best tools to use for CAD design-specific tools and techniques are CAD Designers , including Siemens NX, AutoCAD, CATIA, Solid works, Inventor, etc. You may build the world of your dreams with all these tools and cutting-edge technology.

What are the steps involved in the CAD designing and drafting service?

The significant stages of Developing CAD designing and drafting standards are

  • Meta Stage.
  • Development Stage.
  • Execution Stage.

The role of cad designing and drafting services in industrial product designing 

It is the current trend in the field of design in contemporary times. Many significant firms outsource their CAD design and CAD design engineer rather than invest in internal infrastructure. The sole reason is that it offers a range of benefits to organizations.

A few major benefits are:

  • Minimal expenditure on additional equipment and labour during product design.
  • The reliability and professionalism of these services are way better and faster than any else.
  • It saves a lot of time the company will invest in brainstorming, planning, and plotting the design.
  • Minimize the risk of the failure of the design.
  • Protects the privacy of the product designs.
  • Saves money, and labour goes behind designing
  • Involvement of dedicated designers who know their work well and know how to get the result right with minimum resources and time.

In usual practice, when companies draft the design by themselves, it demands a good amount of money for a single project which sometimes churns their economy.

But you can expect many perks when you deal with Australian Designing and Drafting Services . We will save a good amount of money on CAD drafting services and CAD designing.

It is a great deal for companies trying to establish their feet in the market and for well-established companies.

These services guarantee exceptional results to any in-house workforce accessible in businesses, and they frequently do their work in a fraction of the time.

Our staff knows tier work and delivery only what the client has asked for with their designs.

Summary
Last but not least, the benefits involved with outsourcing Drafting services Melbourne & Perth for CAD design and drafting services have the lowest chance of risk. When you decide to outsource your design work with us, be assured that you will only get the best possible result in minimal time. We also guarantee the confidentiality of your design.

Shop Drawings For Steel Fabrication

Shop Drawings for Steel Fabrication

The construction industry is a vast concept to study. It is the root of creations worldwide, without which we can hardly imagine a home. When we talk about the construction industry, we cannot neglect the importance of steel. It is a versatile component of construction projects due to its robust and durable nature.

But have you ever wondered about how the minute detailing on steel structures originated in the first place? The loud and clear answer is structural steel detailing . It is a branch of architectural drawings and designs that allow the fabrication of steel components on structures.

Steel shop drawings are another vital component of structural steel detailing. They form the base of steel structures by connecting the fabricators, contractors, suppliers, architects, and manufacturers. Hence, let us dig deeper into how steel shop drawings impact the steel fabrication industry.

How do steel shop drawings help?

Steel shop drawings provide deep insights into how various steel components fit into steel structures. They cover all the sections and views of various steel parts of a construction project.

Steel shop drawings are usually created by the fabricators, contractors, manufacturers, etc., to depict their version of the steel construction project. They create them considering the dimensions of various steel components and the fabrication standards to make the fabrication of steel easy and convenient for everyone involved in the project.

It also depicts how welding and bolting need to be done with every minute detail leading to the final erection of the structure. Hence, shop drawings for steel fabrication are smart ways to increase the profitability of steel construction projects.

Steel shop drawings are about construction and erection details on steel components, such as ladders, stairs, frames, truss, beams, columns, etc. Hence, you can say that these figures and drawings are a strong preparation for a strong and long-lasting structure.

What are the features of steel shop drawings?

Steel shop drawings come with features to build a steel construction project from scratch and take it to the heights of the sky. These are

  • They differ from architectural drawings as the focus is entirely on the steel components.
  • They inform the people involved in the project about the steel components, design, and fabrication methods.
  • They provide step-by-step instructions for the steel fabrication involved in construction projects.

Conclusion

Steel is a vital material used in construction projects due to its versatility. Steel shop drawings help fabricate them with utmost ease and efficiency. They not only add quality and value to the steel structures but also help enhance the cost-effectiveness and profitability of the projects.

So, now that you know about the importance of shop drawings for steel fabrication, you can hire fabrication shop drawings experts for your construction projects. Australian design and drafting service is the perfect place to find shop drawing experts.

It is a CAD engineering company that solves all your architectural and structural steel detailing requirements under one roof. Hence, you can step ahead into the grand world of steel structures through shop drawings for steel fabrication with Australian design and drafting services.

 

Structural steel detailing

What is structural steel detailing?

Construction projects are the keys to the creation of a modern world. They need immense planning and architectural design to create the most efficient and robust structures.

Structural steel detailing is a part of drawing and model development. The contractors and fabricators must hold it in high regard while working with residential and commercial construction projects. Now that you might wonder what structural steel detailing stands for and why it is essential, here is all you need to know about it.

Structural steel detailing is the method of creating drawings and designs for steel components of structural projects. The steel components include steel columns, steel joists, trusses, handrails, metal decking, stairs, etc.

Structural steel detailing of these components ensures the strength and integrity of structures. On failing to undergo structural steel detailing, the construction projects might prove inefficient and pose numerous threats to life and property.

Hence, engineers, steel fabricators, contractors, and architects use structural steel detailing to make reliable and durable steel components to erect structures.

What are the types of structural steel detailing?

Two types of structural steel detailing are involved in the construction industry. The drawings used in the process are divided into erection and shop drawings.

  1. Erection drawings: erection drawings are essential components of structural steel detailing. They involve the dimensional and geographical planning and positioning of the steel components of structures. It helps install the steel components and the external works required on them.
  1. Shop drawings: shop drawings deal with further detailing of the steel components. It involves illustrating columns, joints, and steel beams, considering the components' material specifications, size, and dimensions. Structural detailing steel shop drawings help in the assembly of the steel components.

What is the importance of structural steel detailing?

Structural steel detailing is significant in the construction industry. Numerous reasons support the statement. It provides a well-designed plan for construction involving steel components. It not only helps contractors and engineers erect a versatile structure but also prevents accidents that could arise due to miscalculations in the size and dimensions of the components. It also links the engineers, contractors, fabricators, and architects involved at different project stages to keep them on the same page.

How does the computer-aided design make structural steel detailing efficient?

Computer-aided design helps automate the designing and drawing of various steel components. It provides facilities for both 2D and 3D drawings with a top-notch presentation. Moreover, the measurements and calculations are precise and accurate due to the least human error. Hence, ultimately it reduces manual effort and time used in construction projects.

In fact, we use premium software like TEKLA, Solidworks and inventor to make these designs. It helps us attain perfection and deliver quality work to our customers.

Conclusion

Steel is a versatile element used in the construction of vast structures and buildings, both commercial and residential. However, structural detailing is essential to make the best use of steel components to erect structures. Structural steel detailing comes to your rescue here. It can be used for creating both erection and shop drawings. Moreover, CAD adds life to structural steel drawings with utmost accuracy and precision. Hence, structural steel detailing is the key to unlocking construction projects now.

Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)

What is Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)

COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING (CAE)

The computer-aided engineering (CAE) method mainly uses computers to analyse, design, and manufacture a product, project, and process. CAE relates to elements of CADD in industry. CAE often work as a recognised umbrella discipline that involves a lot of computer-aided technologies that are not limited to CAD,  computer-aided industrial design  (CAID), CNC, CAD/CAM, PDM and CIM, plus the Internet and other technologies that collaborate on various projects. Talking about CAE it often focuses on mechanical design and product development automation.

Its most familiar elements of CAE where simulation and solid modelling, analysis, optimisation and testing of mechanical structures. It adds a system that uses digital prototypes. FEA is a kind of process that is often associated with Computer-Aided engineering.  

DESIGN APPLICATION

Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) service companies relate to computer-aided technologies that offer revolutionary tools for engineers and drafters during the engineering design process. CADD enhances design efficiency, creativity, and effectiveness in product development. There are a lot of different forms that accept engineering design processes and integration of CADD within the  engineering design process . Get a simplified sample of an engineering design process for a lifting hook.

Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)

The lifting hook is one best example, and the following information is an introduction to CADD in the engineering design process.

STEP - 1

Step 1 helps to identify the problem along with adding design constraints. It comes with a constraint and a condition adding a specific shape, size, or requirement. It defines a design that satisfies to achieve a successful design. The problem statement describes the requirements and constraints for a forged-steel lift hook that support a 3000-pound load.

STEP - 2

Step 2 offers a sketch of the initial design based on the solution to the problem. The sketch comes with hand-drawn that use CADD as a sketching tool. CADD systems require the creation of a digital sketch as an element of the  CADD process . The hand-drawn sketches come with a common practice that especially comes during early design.

STEP - 3

Step 3 can generate an initial three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) solid model according to the hand-drawn sketch. Using  finite element analysis (FEA) software , you can study the model. Here, FEA applies the finite element method (FEM) to solve mathematical equations related to engineering design problems, including structural and thermal issues.

STEP - 4

Step 4 offers structural stress analysis applied to that lifting hook to simulate a real-world lift.

STEP - 5

Step 5 optimise the design to reduce material with improving shape while maintaining a sufficient working strength. Users can perform design optimisation, adding manual calculations and tests and repeated  FEA simulations . It offers an optimised lift hook with CAD solid model.

STEP - 6

Step 6 can re-analyse the model that confirms a solution to the design problem.

STEP - 7

The last step 7 is to use the  CAD solid model  to prepare two-dimensional (2-D) detail drawings and a digital model format supported by computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software. The manufacturer mainly uses the supplied data to create the forging equipment necessary to produce the lifting hook.

PROFESSIONAL APPROCHED

A wide variety of jobs are currently available for qualified  CADD professionals . Note that the kinds of tasks they may allow is always traditional. In addition to this, they create drawings that are responsible for working in some of the following areas, including:

  • To prepare freehand sketches on the shop floor and convert the sketch with finished CADD drawing.
  • To include Digital image creation and editing.
  • To provide text documents, including proposals, reports, and studies.
  • To incorporate CADD images and drawings into text documents.
  • To conduct research for job proposals, purchasing specifications and feasibility studies.
  • To evaluate and test new software with ease.
  • To train the staff members by using new software or procedures.
  • To collect vendor product information for new projects.
  • To speak on the phone and deal personally with clients, vendors, contractors, and engineers.
  • To check design and drawings by creating accuracy.
  • To research computer equipment and prepare bid specifications for purchase.

We often hire employees who possess good tech skills to become good employees. The best jobs that we can find here are those students who developed an excellent understanding of the project planning process and can easily handle any situation.

The process is based on the person’s ability to communicate. It helps to apply solid math skills through trigonometry with exhibiting good problem-solving skills. We know how to use resources and conduct research by getting all data. We can serve general qualifications foundation by adding more specific skills to our study. It includes good working knowledge of drawing layout and construction techniques. Based on applicable standards, it adds a good grasp of CADD software mainly used for creating models and drawings.

In addition, we support you in customising the  CADD software  that better suits your needs. What is most essential for the prospective drafter to remember. Content applies to the lot of details of an object, situation and procedure. If we are given enough time, then we can find all of the pieces of information required to complete a task.

Here the process refers to a method of doing something. It involves several steps that come with learning a helpful process and making it easier to complete all tasks. We can find all of the content you require and understand an exemplary problem-solving method. It comes with project planning and is used in any situation. We can use the process to make the task easier and determine what content would be beneficial.

There are many more reasons that we strongly recommend you focus on your efforts. We learn and establish good problem-solving habits. Using the skills to locate the content, all we need for any project is to make all aspects of your life productive, efficient, and relaxing. We at Australian Design & Drafting Services company are ready to offer excellent CAD Design and Drafting services.  Contact Us  to give wings to your project.

What is Engineering Prototyping

What is Engineering Prototyping

PROTOTYPING

A prototype is a functional part model of design; it is used as the basis for continuing the production of the final part or assembly. The terms prototype and model are often used interchangeably. Prototypes are used to determine if a new design works as intended. A prototype is commonly used as part of the product design process to enable engineers and designers to explore design alternatives, determine unknown characteristics in the design, finalize part tolerances, confirm customer interest in the design, verify design performance, coordinate with marketing and sales, and test theories before starting full production of a new product.
A variety of processes can be used to create a prototype. The processes range from creating a digital model to developing a solid physical model of a part directly from a 3-D CAD model data and to fabricating a model using standard manufacturing processes. A company generally contracts with another company that specializes in developing prototypes quickly and accurately. Some companies have their own prototype development departments. A prototype is generally different from the final production part because special processes and materials are used to quickly create a part that can be used to simulate the actual part.
The development phase of the design process is when a fully functioning prototype model is made that operates at the desired quality level. A physical prototype can be machined, molded, or created using rapid prototyping processes. Parts are assembled into the desired product and then tested to determine if the design meets specifi c product requirements such as weight and performance. The design might have to return to the concept phase for reevaluation if some aspects of the design do not perform as intended or manufacturing process appears to be too costly. After the functioning prototype has been built and tested, drawings are created for continuing to full production of the product.

DIGITAL PROTOTYPING

digital prototyping model

A digital prototype is a computer-generated model or original design that has not been released for production. The most common and useful digital prototype is a 3-D solid model. A solid model digital prototype functions much like a physical prototype, is often just as or even more accurate, and can be subjected to real-world analysis and simulation. Digital prototyping is the method of using CAD to help solve engineering design problems and provide digital models for project requirements. Successful digital prototyping offers several ben-efi ts to the engineering design process. It provides companies with a deeper understanding of product function, enables the simulation of product performance as part of a complete system, offers interactive and automatic design optimization based on requirements, and assists other areas of product development and coordination.
Digital prototyping can support all members of a product development team and help communication. Designers, engineers, and manufacturers use digital prototyping to explore ideas and optimize and validate designs quickly. Salespeople and marketers use digital prototyping to demonstrate and describe products. Depending on product requirements and company practices, digital prototyping can reduce or eliminate the need for physical prototypes, which are often expensive and time-consuming to create and test. The figure shows an example of digital prototyping to model, analyze, simulate, and visualize products in a virtual environment.

RAPID PROTOTYPING

 

rapid prototyping model

Rapid prototyping is a manufacturing process by which a solid physical model of a part is made directly from 3-D CAD model data without any special tooling. An RP model is a physical 3-D model that can be created far more quickly than by using standard manufacturing processes. Examples of RP are stereolithography (SLA) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), or 3-D printing.
Three-dimensional CAD software such as AutoCAD, Autodesk Inventor, NX, Pro/Engineer, and SolidWorks allows you to export an RP fi le from a solid model in the form of a .stl file. A computer using postprocessing software slices the 3-D CAD data into .005–.013 in. thick cross-sectional planes. Each slice or layer is composed of closely spaced lines resembling a honeycomb. The slice is shaped like the cross-section of the part. The cross-sections are sent from the computer to the rapid prototyping machine, which builds the part one layer at a time.
The SLA and FDM processes are similar, using a machine with a vat that contains a photosensitive liquid epoxy plastic and a flat platform or starting base resting just below the surface of the liquid as shown in Figure. A laser-controlled with bi-directional motors is positioned above the vat and perpendicular to the surface of the polymer. The first layer is bonded to the platform by the heat of a thin laser beam that traces the lines of the layer onto the surface of the liquid polymer. When the first layer is completed, the platform has lowered the thickness of one layer. Additional layers are bonded on top of the first in the same manner, according to the shape of their respective cross-sections. This process is repeated until the prototype part is complete.
Another type of rapid prototyping called solid object 3-D printing uses an approach similar to inkjet printing. During the build process, a print head with a model and support print tip create the model by dispensing a thermoplastic material in layers.

The printer can be networked to any CAD workstation and operates with the push of a few buttons as shown in Figure.
Rapid prototyping has revolutionized product design and manufacture. The development of physical models can be accomplished in significantly less time when compared to traditional machining processes. Changes to a part can be made on the 3-D CAD model and then sent to the RP equipment for quick reproduction. Engineers can use these models for design verification, sales presentations, investment casting, tooling, and other manufacturing functions. In addition, medical imaging, CAD, and RP have made it possible to quickly develop medical models such as replacement teeth and for medical research.

RAPID INJECTION MOLDING PROTOTYPING

rapid injection molding prototyping by rapid injection molding rapid injection molding protoryping

Rapid injection molding is an automated process of designing and manufacturing molds based on customer-supplied 3-D CAD part models. Because of this automation, lead time for the initial parts is cut to one-third of conventional methods. Cost-saving varies with the number of parts being produced, but rapid injection molding can also have a substantial cost advantage in runs of up to thousands of parts. Rapid injection molding produces quality molds using advanced aluminium alloys and precise, high-speed CNC machining. Parts can be molded in almost any engineering-grade resin. The figure shows the 3-D CAD part model, the injection molded part in the mold, and the resulting rapid injection molded part.

SUBTRACTIVE RAPID PROTOTYPING

Subtractive Rapid Pr ototyping

Subtractive Rapid

 Rapid Prototyping Subtractive

CNC machining of parts has been around for decades, but the use has typically not been applied to short lead-time prototype development. Subtractive rapid prototyping uses proprietary software running on large-scale computers to translate a 3-D CAD design into instructions for high-speed CNC milling equipment. The result is the manufacturing of small quantities of functional parts very fast, typically within one to three business days. A variety of materials, including plastics and metal, can be used with sub-tractive rapid prototyping. The figure shows the 3-D CAD part model, the CNC machining process, and the machined part.

CONVENTIONAL MACHINING PROTOTYPING

Some companies have a machine shop combined with the research-and-development (R&D) department. The purpose of the machine shop is to create prototypes for engineering designs. Drafters generally work with engineers and highly skilled machinists to create design drawings that are provided to the machine shop for the prototype machining. This practice generally takes longer than the previously described practices, but the resulting parts can be used to assemble a working prototype of the product for testing.

Australian Design & Drafting Services provide excellent service for CAD Design and  Drafting.  Contact Us  for more info

Difference between 2D & 3D Drawings

Difference between 2D & 3D Drawings

TWO-DIMENSIONAL (2D) DRAWINGS

The abbreviation for two-dimensional drawing is 2-D. It describes the view that comes with using height, width and length. Or it can be length and length dimensions. It comes with two-dimensional drawings that are established using design and drafting format. They commonly used for all engineering and architectural industries that relates to the disciplines with ease.

The two 2-D views represent the geometry of an aircraft part. It uses two views that come together and provide height, width, and length dimensions. The views mostly appear in the flat format and are rotated at 90 degrees from each other.

2 DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS

It comes with a complete 2-D drawing that include notes, dimensions, and text that describes view details and features. 2D drawings are the conventional and need to use method for communicating a project. Along with this, it uses an effective 2-D drawing accurately with describing design intent and product requirements. It covers the shape, size, and characteristics of all materials, features, finishes, and manufacturing methods.

TWO DIMENSION DRAWING

A 2D drawing comes with typical documents that add project data for individuals and companies that are involved in the project. It covers relevant dates, design and approvals based on revision history. The 2D drawings offer computer numerical control (CNC) machine code. When compared with 3D surface and solid models, 2D drawings use few options to present and visualise the ideas. and limited ability to analyze and test product design. In addition, 2D drawings sometimes can be difficult to understand, if the reader is unfamiliar with interpreting 2D drawings.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL (3D) DRAWINGS

The abbreviation for three-dimensional is 3-D. It describes an object that have a height, a width, and depth dimensions. A wire-frame model offers the most basic  3-D CAD model , and contains data about object vertices and edges. The word vertices are plural when used for vertex. It points the edges that intersect. The wireframe is a term that describe the appearance of the model if they are constructed using wires.

3D DRAWINGS

Talking about three-dimensional surface, then it’s used as solid modelling placed in wireframe modelling in the CAD industry. The wireframe models come with a limited models use because they lack mass and surfaces. Without using the surfaces, the wireframe models are most difficult to visualise. It comes with creating an uncertain design intent. It does not require a true representation of a product, and lack volume.

Few tools come with an ability to change or hide the format of the lines fall through object features. It improves visualisation and create a 3-D representation way, along with a view for a 2-D drawing. However, the display can cause confusion. Especially when user view the complex objects. Without using the mass or the volume, the wireframe models come with a limited ability to analyse and test products.

A wireframe model comes with a small file size that offer fast display regeneration, store edge and vertex data. Whereas, the Wireframe models serve as a basis to construct 3 -D surface and solid models . It provides the geometry for 2-D drawings. One can rotate and repurposing a wireframe model by producing the 2-D views. The Wireframe models uses 3D CNC machine code with ease.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL (3D) SURFACE MODELS

3D WIREFRAME MODEL 1     3D WIREFRAME MODEL 2

A surface model use data about object vertices, edges, and surfaces. It comes with an outer boundary object that connects to vertices and edges. The surfaces display shade, color, reflection, and texture that helps to improve visualisation. Surfaces reduce uncertainty about design intent and offer a true representation of a product. Surface modelling provides the ability to create complex curves and forms.

3D SURFACE MODEL

3D surface modelling is commonly used for CAD industry, particularly used for conceptual design and industrial design to construct certain shapes. A surface model has zero thickness, lacks mass, and do not enclose a volume. The Surface models allow uses basic calculations that includes surface area and volume, but without mass. It comes with limited ability to analyse and test physical and inertial properties. With time the most common users of surface models are designers that primarily concerned with the external shape and appearance of a product.

BOAT AND SHIP HULL DESIGN 3D MODEL

The hull design is a common application for  surface modelling . The automobile body panel is another example of a product that needs to have an accurate surface. It covers animations, video games, virtual reality programs, and other programs that use similar requirements to form complex surfaces, especially when solids are unnecessary and file size is generally smaller than solid model files.

Surface models serve as a basis to construct 3-D solid models, and provide the geometry for 2-D drawings. It can rotate and repurpose a surface model to produce the 2-D views and display realistic surfaces on the 3-D representation.

THREE-DIMENSIONAL (3D) SOLID MODELS

3D SOLID MODELS 1 3D SOLID MODELS 2

3A solid model is one of the most complex CAD formats that contains data about object edges, vertices, surfaces, and mass. Talking about Solid models, it’s most common 3-D CAD format used in the current CAD industry. It encloses a volume and has mass that allows designers and engineers to analyze the exterior and interior object characteristics. In contrast to a 2-D drawing , it offers a note that specifies the material assigned to a product.

gas powered drill solid model

It comes with using 3-D surface model that displays a representation of material on surfaces. It assigns material to a solid model for analysing and testing physical and inertial properties. As a result, a solid model acts as a digital prototype of a product. It provides the geometry for 2-D drawings. We are best Australian Design & Drafting Services company to offer excellent CAD Design and Drafting. Contact Us  to clear your doubts.

different types of cadd formats

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT CADD FORMATS

CADD FORMATS

There are several different CADD formats. The most recognized CADD formats include 2D drawing s and 3D wireframe , surface, and solid models. In general, 2-D drawings and 3-D solid models are the most common CADD formats currently used in the industry. Three-dimensional surface models are also widely used, but often for specific applications. Three-dimensional wireframe models are rare in the current industry. Software specifies the CADD format, which usually focuses on a certain process such as 2-D drawing or 3-D solid modeling.

However, some systems offer tools for working in a variety of formats or the ability to use drawing or model content created in a different format. For example, you can often develop a 2D drawing from 3D model geometry or build a 3-D solid model from 3-D surface model geometry. A software add-on or separate application is sometimes required to work with multiple CADD formats.

CHOOSING A CADD FORMAT

Several factors influence CADD software and format selection. Design and drafting practices and specific project requirements are primary considerations. Two-dimensional drawings are often required because they are the standard format in manufacturing and construction.

The figure shows a 2-D structural detail required for the construction of a building. In addition, 2-D drawing is effective for a project that is quick to design, does not require extensive revision, and does not require advanced visualization, simulation, and analysis. Three-dimensional solid modeling is a better solution when a complex project will require extensive revision and when advanced visualization, simulation, and analysis are required. A 3-D representation of a design can help overcome visualization problems and produce a realistic, testable product model.

3D CAD FORMAT

The figure shows a multidiscipline 3D model of a building providing structural, electrical, HVAC, and piping layouts. When applied correctly, a combination of CADD formats and software may prove most effective for a project. Bringing the advantages of each CADD format together maximizes product design flexibility and effectiveness.

Collaboration and communication during a project also influence CADD software and format selection. Everyone involved in a project must be able to use a common CADD format or be able to easily convert data to a usable format. Costs are another important factor to consider when choosing a CADD software and format. For example, advanced 3-D solid modeling software is generally more expensive than 2-D drafting software. Operating a new or different CADD system also requires training and time to learn. Training is an expense and takes time from projects that produce income. A more capable CAD format, such as 3D solid modeling , is extremely cost-effective for some users, especially over time, but others will never benefit from the initial costs of the software and training. Several additional factors also influence selecting CADD software and format, including choosing a product and a format that is a known industry standard for project requirements, software stability and usability, the availability and effectiveness of support and training, and personal preference.

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COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND OB体育ob体育官网 (CADD) (1)

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND OB体育ob体育官网 (CADD)

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND OB体育ob体育官网 (CADD)

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN AND OB体育ob体育官网 (CADD) figure Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) is the process of using a computer with CADD software for design and drafting applications. Software is the program or instructions that enable a computer to perform specific functions to accomplish a task. CADD refers to the entire range of design and drafting with the aid of a computer, from drawing basic 2-D objects to preparing complex 3-D models and animations. CAD is the acronym for computer-aided design and a common reference to computer-aided drafting. Computer-aided design and computer-aided drafting refer to specific aspects of the CADD process.

CADD offers solutions to most engineering drawing and design problems, and it allows for increasingly complex projects. Several industries and most disciplines related to engineering and architecture use CADD. Most engineering firms and educational institutions that previously used manual drafting practices have evolved to CADD. Professionals have come to rely on the power and convenience of CADD in all aspects of design and drafting. CADD systems include tools to accomplish any drawing and design requirement, such as preparing the 3-D model of a home shown in Figure.

THE CADD WORKSTATION

cad workstation The CADD workstation consists of a variety of computer hardware. Hardware includes the physical components of a computer system, such as the computer, monitor, keyboard, mouse, and printer. The figure shows a modern CADD work-station. A CADD workstation relies on a computer for data processing, calculations, and communication with peripheral equipment. A peripheral is an external computer hardware device that uses the computer to perform functions that the computer cannot handle.
Peripherals provide input, output, and storage functions and services. Input means to put information into the computer that the computer acts on in some way. Input comes from devices such as the keyboard, a mouse or similar input device, or a digitizer. Output refers to information that the computer sends to a receiving device such as a monitor, a plotter, or a printer. Storage refers to disks and drives that allow the operator to store programs, files, symbols, and data.

CADD SOFTWARE PRODUCTS

The modern CADD workstation is powerful, inexpensive, and supports sophisticated CADD software. Many CADD software manufacturers exist, and numerous products are available to meet industry needs. Some CADD software is general purpose and can apply to any discipline. For example, Autodesk, Inc. produces AutoCAD for 2-D and 3-D design and drafting.

Other products focus on a specific CADD technology, industry, or discipline, such as drawings or models of mechanical parts and assemblies or those for architectural, civil, or structural engineering projects.

For example, Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks Corp. offers SolidWorks for 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting that is common in the manufacturing industry. Software specifically designed for CADD in the manufacturing industry is sometimes referred to as mechanical computer-aided design (MCAD) software. Some CADD programs support expanded, third-party, or add-on utilities intended to increase system usefulness for specifi c applications.
The CADD software industry changes constantly. Software manufacturers frequently update existing products or combine, change program names, or eliminate programs to adapt to the rapidly evolving CADD market. Software updates typically include additional and refined tools, increased software stability, and graphical user interface (GUI) enhancements.

The interface describes the items that allow you to input data to and receive outputs from a computer system. The GUI provides the on-screen features that allow you to interact with a software program. New products regularly emerge to respond to innovative technology and project requirements. Larger software manufacturers, such as Autodesk Inc., Dassault Systèmes, Parametric Technology Corporation, and Siemens PLM Solutions hold the greatest number of CADD users, and they traditionally have the ability to expand their products and acquire smaller software companies or existing software.

Some software manufacturers offer products intended to support various aspects of product development. For example, some software companies combine CADD and CAM tools for design, drafting, and manufacturing. A few software companies offer specific applications or software packages to help manage all aspects of a project, known as product life cycle management (PLM). PLM systems include tools for CADD, product data management (PDM) to organize and monitor project data, computer-aided engineering (CAE) for simulation and analysis, CAM, and presentation.

Alibre, Inc.

Alibre provides software generally for CADD in the manufacturing industry. Alibre Design is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program. The Professional version of Alibre Design includes tools for sheet metal design and rendering. The Expert version of Alibre Design provides additional functions such as simulation and FEA, PDM, CAM, and extended translation tools. Translation occurs when converting data from the fi le system of one CADD system to another, and it is often necessary when sharing CADD data with others, such as consultants, manufacturers, and vendors. Most CADD soft-ware includes tools for some level of fi le translation. Separate translation software is available when necessary. Alibre also offers Alibre Personal Edition, which is a 3-D modeling and 2-D drawing software marketed to hobbyists.

Ashlar-Vellum

Ashlar-Vellum offers basic 2-D and 3-D CADD software. Graphite provides 2-D and 3-D wireframe drawing and modeling capabilities. Argon is a basic 3-D model-ing software for conceptual design, visualization, and translation. Xenon and Cobalt, which include additional functions, are 3-D modeling programs with 2-D drafting capabilities.

Autodesk, Inc.

Autodesk offers a wide variety of soft-ware. AutoCAD is general-purpose 2-D and 3-D CADD software and is the core Autodesk product. Autodesk provides variations of AutoCAD for unique markets, such as Auto-CAD LT for 2-D drafting, AutoCAD Electrical for electrical control system design, and AutoCAD Civil 3-D for civil engineering project design. Additional Autodesk products focus on specifi c CADD technology and industries, such as manufacturing, architecture, construction, infrastructure, media, and entertainment.
Autodesk® Inventor® is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program generally for CADD in the manufacturing industry. Autodesk Inventor provides a comprehensive and flexible set of software for 3-D mechanical design, simulation, design visualization and communication, tooling creation, and 2-D documentation. Autodesk offers Autodesk Inventor Suites that combine Autodesk Inventor, AutoCAD Mechanical, and tools for specifi c applications, such as mold, tube and pipe, and cable and harness design. Some Autodesk Inventor Suites also include simulation and analysis functions. Autodesk Revit is a 3-D building design program with 2-D drafting and documentation capabilities. Versions of Autodesk Revit focus on design for architecture, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP), or building information modeling (BIM) for structural engineering. Autodesk manufactures numerous other software products, including Autodesk Algor Simulation for solid model simulation and FEA, Autodesk Vault for PDM, 3ds Max for 3-D modeling, animation, and rendering, and software to support the sustainable and environmentally friendly design and development.

Bentley Systems, Inc.

Bentley Systems focuses on software for engineering and construction infrastructure design, documentation, and operation. Infrastructure is the structures, facilities, and services required for an economy to function, such as buildings, roads and bridges, water supply and sewer systems, and power-supply and telecommunication systems. Micro Station is a general-purpose 2-D and 3-D CADD soft-ware and is the primary Bentley Systems product. Micro-Station also acts as a platform for other Bentley Systems software. For example, GEOPACK Civil Engineering Suite includes tools for civil engineering and transportation project design. Micro Station PowerDraft is a version of MicroStation mainly for 2-D drafting. Bentley Systems manufactures other software, including Project Wise for PDM, and ProConcrete for 3-D modeling, detailing, and scheduling of reinforced concrete structures.

Dassault Systèmes

Dassault Systèmes brands offer several soft-ware products generally focused on CAD and related technology for the manufacturing industry. CATIA is a project development system and is the main Dassault Systèmes brand product. CATIA provides tools for 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting and tools for specifi c applications, such as mold, tube and pipe, cable and harness, and electronic design. CATIA also offers simulation and analysis, CAM, and PDM functions. The additional Dassault Systèmes brand software focuses on specifi c aspects of PLM.
SolidWorks is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program and is the core Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks (www. solidworks.com) brand product. Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks offers a standard version of SolidWorks and suites that incorporate SolidWorks with simulation, analysis, and PDM tools. SolidWorks Simulation includes tools for solid model simulation and FEA. SolidWorks Flow provides fluid-flow simulation and thermal analysis. Dassault Systèmes SolidWorks also manufactures software to support the sustainable and environmentally friendly design and manufacturing.

Google Inc.

Google SketchUp is a software intended to have an easy to use interface for creating, sharing, and presenting 3-D models. Common applications for Google SketchUp include sketching and modeling for visualization during the conceptual design phase of a project and creating presentation drawings that look hand-sketched or photorealistic. Google SketchUp also links to Google Earth for sketching relative to a physical location, such as modeling a building on an actual lot.

GRAPHISOFT

GRAPHISOFT focuses on software for the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry. ArchiCAD is a 3-D building design program with 2-D drafting and documentation capabilities; it is the main GRAPHISOFT product. MEP Modeler adds 3-D and 2-D MEP functions to ArchiCAD. Virtual Building is a 3-D digital database that tracks all elements that make up a building, allowing the designer to use items such as surface area and volume, thermal properties, room descriptions, costs, product information, and window, door, and finish schedules. Virtual refers to something that appears to have the properties of a real or actual object or experience. GRAPHISOFT also manufactures photo-realistic rendering software and software to support sustainable and environmentally friendly architectural design and construction.

IMSI/Design, LLC

IMSI/Design offers basic CADD software for general-purpose and project-specific applications. TurboCAD is the core IMSI/Design product. IMSI/Design provides variations of TurboCAD for unique markets, such as TurboCAD Designer for 2-D drafting, TurboCAD Deluxe for 2-D drafting and 3-D modeling, and TurboCAD Pro with additional 2-D and 3-D CADD functions. Additional IMSI/Design products focus on specifi c CADD technology and industries, such as Home & Landscape and Instant Architect for basic 2-D and 3-D home design.

Intergraph

Intergraph manufactures software for specific industries and projects, including the design, construction, and operation of plants, ships, offshore facilities, and transportation and utility systems. For example, SmartMarine 3-D is specialized software for 3-D model-ing, design, and documentation of marine structures, such as commercial ships. Intergraph also offers SmartSketch for 2-D drafting.

IronCAD

IronCAD provides software generally for CADD in the manufacturing industry. IRONCAD is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program with PDM functions. A third-party application offers simulation and FEA tools compatible with IRONCAD. INOVATE is a version of IRONCAD with fewer 3-D modeling functions and no 2-D drafting capabilities.

Kubotek Corporation

Kubotek manufactures CADD and CAM software. KeyCreator is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program generally for CADD in the manufacturing industry; it is the chief Kubotek product. Kubotek Validation Tool confirms design accuracy during or after a specifi c activity, such as a design revision or data translation. Kubotek also manufactures KeyMachinest for CAM and maintains CADKEY for 3-D wireframe modeling.

Parametric Technology Corporation

Parametric Technology Corporation, or PTC , offers several software products generally focused on CADD in the manufacturing industry. Pro/ENGINEER is a 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting program and is the core PTC software. PTC provides various additions to the Pro/ENGINEER platform, including tools for CAE, CAM, and PDM: for example, Pro/ENGINEER Mechanica for simulation and FEA, Pro/ENGINEER Piping and Cabling Extension for pipe and cable design, and Pro/ENGINEER Reverse Engineering for automating reverse engineering. Reverse engineering is the process of converting an existing physical product into drawings or digital models, and it involves discovering the technological principles of a device, object, or system by analyzing its structure, function, and operation.

PTC manufactures other software, including Windchill for PDM, CoCreate for CAD, CAE, and PDM, and MathCAD for engineering calculations.

Siemens Corporation

Siemens Corporation offers a wide variety of products and services. The Siemens PLM Solutions (www.plm.automation. siemens.com) brand manufactures PLM software. NX ad-dresses each area of product development, and it is the primary Siemens PLM Solutions software. NX provides tools for 3-D solid modeling, 2-D drafting, and specific applications such as tool and fixture, routed system, and sheet metal product design. NX also offers simulation, FEA, CAM, and PDM functions. In addition to NX, Siemens PLM Solutions produces SolidEdge for 3-D solid modeling and 2-D drafting, generally for CADD in the manufacturing industry. The additional Siemens PLM Solutions brand software focuses on specifi c aspects of PLM.

 

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Manual Drafting in cad application

How Manual Drafting Equipment & Supplies used in CAD

MANUAL OB体育ob体育官网

Manual drafting, also known as hand drafting, describes traditional drafting practice using pencil or ink on a medium such as paper or polyester film, with the support of drafting instruments and equipment. This chapter also explains drawing scale, sheet size, and sheet format.

Manual Drafting in cad application Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) has replaced manual drafting in most of the drafting industry.

As a result, some of the information in this chapter primarily serves as a historical reference. However, both manual drafting and CADD require that you understand the basics of drafting. Concepts such as scale, sheet size, and sheet format are critical and universal to manual drafting and CADD. Also, some companies use CADD but have manual drafting equipment available that you should be able to recognize and operate at a basic level.

MANUAL OB体育ob体育官网 EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES

Professional manual drafting requires appropriate drafting of equipment and supplies. If you work in a modern CADD environment, manual drafting tools such as compasses, dividers, triangles, templates, and scales have less importance. However, they are still valuable for sketching, taking measurements, and other related activities. You can purchase drafting supplies and equipment in a kit or buy items individually. Manual drafting equipment is available from many local and online vendors. Search the Internet or a phone book for keywords or headings such as drafting equipment and supplies, blueprinting, architect supplies, and artist supplies. Always purchase quality instruments for the best results. The following is a list of items generally needed for typical manual drafting:

• Drafting furniture.
• One 0.3 mm automatic drafting pencil with 4H, 2H, and H leads.
• One 0.5 mm automatic drafting pencil with 4H, 2H, H, and F leads.
• One 0.7 mm automatic drafting pencil with 2H, H, and F leads.
• One 0.9 mm automatic drafting pencil with H, F, and HB leads.
• Sandpaper sharpening pad.
• Erasers recommended for drafting with pencil on paper.
• Erasing shield.
• Dusting brush.
• 6 in. Bow compass.
• Dividers.
• 8 in. 30–60 triangle.
• 8 in. 45 triangle.
• Circle template with small circles.
• Circle template with large circles.
• Irregular curve.
• Scales:
• Triangular architect's scale.
• Triangular civil engineer's scale.
• Triangular metric scale.
• Drafting tape.
• Lettering guide (optional).
• Arrowhead template (optional).

OB体育ob体育官网 PENCILS AND LEADS

manual drafting automatic pencil Automatic pencils are standard for manual drafting, sketching, and other office uses. The term automatic pencil refers to a pencil with a lead chamber that advances the lead from the chamber to the writing tip by the push of a button or tab when a new piece of lead needed. Automatic pencils hold leads of one width, so you do not need to sharpen the lead. The pencils are available in several different lead sizes.
Drafters typically have several automatic pencils. Each pencil has a different grade of lead hardness and is appropriate for a
specific technique. This reduces the need to change leads constantly. Some drafters use a light blue lead for layout work. If your primary work is CADD, a combination of 0.5-, 0.7-, and 0.9 mm pencils and leads is good for sketching and related activities.

Lead Grades

range of lead grade Lead grades of 2H and H are good in your automatic pencil for typical daily office use. The leads you select for line work and lettering depend on the amount of pressure you apply and other technique factors. Experiment until you identify the leads that give the best line quality. Leads commonly used for thick lines range from 2H to F, whereas leads for thin lines range from 4H to H, depending on individual preference.
Construction lines for layout and guidelines are very lightly drawn with a 6H or 4H lead. The Figure shows the different lead grades.

Compasses

how to use bow compass A compass is an instrument used to draw circles and arcs. A compass is especially useful for large circles, but using one can be time-consuming. Use a template, whenever possible, to make circles or arcs more quickly.

There are several basic types of compasses. A bow compass, shown in Figure, is used for most drawing applications. A beam compass consists of a bar with an adjustable needle, and a pencil or pen attachment for swinging large arcs or circles. Also available is a beam that is adaptable to the bow compass. This adapter works only on a bow compass that has a removable leg.

 

 

DIVIDERS

using divider Dividers are used to transfer dimensions or to divide a distance into several equal parts. Dividers are also used in navigation to measure distance in nautical miles. Some drafters prefer to use bow dividers because the centre wheel provides the ability to make fine adjustments easily. Besides, the setting remains more stable than with standard friction dividers.

A functional divider should not be too loose or tight. It should be easy to adjust with one hand. You should always control a divider with one hand as you layout equal increments or transfer dimensions from one feature to another. Do not try to use a divider as a compass. The Figure shows how to handle the divider when used.

Proportional Dividers

Proportional dividers are used to reduce or enlarge an object without having to make mathematical calculations or scale manipulations. The centre point of the divider is set at the correct point for the proportion you want. Then you measure the original size line with one side of the proportional divider; the other side automatically determines the new reduced or enlarged size.

PARALLEL BAR

parallel bar The parallel bar slides up and down a drafting board to allow you to draw horizontal lines. Use triangles with the parallel bar to draw vertical lines and angles. The parallel bar was common for architectural drafting because architectural drawings are frequently very large. Architects
using manual drafting often need to draw straight lines the full length of their boards, and the parallel bar is ideal for such lines.

 

TRIANGLES

how to use triangle There are two standard triangles. The 30º–60º triangle has angles of 30–60–90. The 45 triangle has angles of 45–45–90. Some drafters prefer to use triangles in place of a vertical drafting machine scale, as shown in Figure. Use the machine protractor or the triangle to make angled lines. Using parallel bars, drafters utilize triangles to make vertical and angled lines.

Triangles can also be used as straightedges to connect points for drawing lines without the aid of a parallel bar or machine scale. Use triangles individually or in combination to draw angled lines in 15 increments Also available are adjustable triangles with built-in protractors that are used to make angles of any degree up to a 45 angle.

TEMPLATES

Manual drafting templates are plastic sheets with accurate shapes cut out for use as stencils to draw specific shapes. The most common manual drafting templates are circle templates for drawing circles and arcs. Templates for drawing other shapes, such as ellipses, and for letters are also common. Templates are also available for specific requirements and drafting disciplines. For example, use architectural templates to draw the floor plan and other symbols to scale. Electronic drafting templates have schematic symbols for electronic schematic drawings.

Circle Templates

Circle templates are available with circles in a range of sizes beginning with 1/16 in. (1.5 mm). The circles on the template are marked with their diameters and are available in fractions, decimals, or millimetres. Figure 2.10 shows the parts of a circle. A popular template is one that has circles, hexagons, squares, and triangles.

Always use a circle template rather than a compass. Circle templates save time and are very accurate. For best results, when making circles, keep your pencil or pen perpendicular to the paper. To obtain proper width lines with a pencil, use a 0.9 mm automatic pencil.

Ellipse Templates

An ellipse is a circle seen at an angle. Isometric circles are ellipses aligned with the horizontal right or left planes of an isometric box. Isometric ellipse templates automatically position the ellipse at the proper angle of 35 16'.

IRREGULAR CURVES

Irregular curves , commonly called French curves , are curves that have no constant radii. A radius curve is composed of a radius and a tangent. The radius on these curves is constant and ranges from 3 ft to 200 ft. (900–60,000 mm). Irregular curves are commonly used in highway drafting. Ship's curves are also available for layout and development of ships hulls. The curves in a set of ship's curves become progressively larger and, like French curves, have no constant radii. Flexible curves are also available that allow you to adjust to the desired curve.

OB体育ob体育官网 MACHINES

A manual drafting machine is a machine that mounts to the table or board and has scales attached to an adjustable head that rotates for drawing angles. When locked in a zero position, the scales allow drawing horizontal and vertical lines and perpendicular lines at any angle orientation. The drafting machine vernier head allows you to measure angles accurately to 5' (minutes). Drafting machines, for the most part, take the place of triangles and parallel bars. The drafting machine maintains a horizontal and vertical relationship between scales, which also serve as straightedges. A protractor allows the scales to be set quickly at any angle.

There are two types of drafting machines: arm and track. The track machine generally replaced the arm machine in the history of manual drafting. A major advantage of the track machine is that it allows the drafter to work with a board in the vertical position. A vertical drafting surface position is generally more comfortable to use than a horizontal table. When ordering a drafting machine, the specifications should relate to the size of the drafting board on which it is mounted. For example, a 37½ 3 60 in. (950–1500 mm) machine properly fits a table of the same size.

Arm Drafting Machine

arm drafting machine The arm drafting machine is compact and less expensive than a track machine. The arm machine clamps to a table and through an elbowlike arrangement of supports allows you to position the protractor head and scales anywhere on the board. The Figure shows an arm drafting machine.

Track Drafting Machine

A track drafting machine has a traversing arm that moves left and right across the table and a head unit that moves up and down the traversing arm. There is a locking device for both the head and the traversing arm. The shape and placement of the controls of a track machine vary with the manufacturer , although most brands have the same operating features and procedures.

SCALES

A scale is an instrument with a system of ordered marks at fixed intervals used as a reference standard in measurement. A scale establishes a proportion used in determining the dimensional relationship of an actual object to the representation of the same object on a drawing. Use specific scales for mechanical, architectural, civil, and metric drawings.

Manual drafters use scales as measurement instruments to help create scaled drawings. In a CADD work environment, a scale is useful for sketching and taking measurements, as well as for related tasks. The scale is a universal and critical design and drafting concept.

Scale Shapes

scale shapes There are four basic scale shapes, as shown in Figure. The two-bevel scale is also available with chuck plates for use with standard arm or track drafting machines. Drafting machine scales have typical calibrations, and some have no scale reading for use as a straightedge. Drafting machine scales are purchased by designating the length needed—12, 18, or 24 in.—and the scale calibration such as metric, engineer's full scale in tenths and half-scale in twentieths, or architect's scale 1/4" 5 1' –0". Many other scales are available. The triangular scale is commonly used in drafting and has different scale calibrations on each corner of the triangle. Common triangular scales are the architectural scale calibrated in feet and inches, mechanical scale calibrated in decimal inches, civil scale calibrated in feet and tenths of a foot, and the metric-scale calibrated in millimetres and centimetres.

Drawing Scale

Drawings are scaled so that the objects represented can be illustrated clearly on standard sizes of paper. It would be difficult, for example, to make a full-size drawing of a house. You must decrease the displayed size, or scale, of the house to fit properly on a sheet. Another example is a very small machine part that requires you to increase the drawing scale to show necessary detail. Machine parts are often drawn full size or even two, four, or ten times larger than full size, depending on the actual size of the part.

The selected scale depends on:

  • The actual size of the objects
  • The amount of detail to
  • The media size.
  • The amount of dimensioning and notes

In addition, you should always select a standard scale that is appropriate for the drawing and drafting discipline. The drawing title block usually indicates the scale at which most views are drawn or the predominant scale of a drawing. If the scale of a view differs from that given in the title block, the unique scale typically appears as a note below the corresponding view.

Mechanical Engineer's Scale

engineer's scale The mechanical engineer's scale is commonly used for mechanical drafting when drawings are in fractional or decimal inches. The mechanical engineer's scale typically has full-scale divisions that are divided into 1/16, 10, and 50. The 1/16 divisions are the same as the 16 architect's scale where there are 12 in. and each inch is divided into 1/16 in. increments (or sometimes 1/32 in. divisions). The 10 scale is the same as the 10 civil engineer's scale, where each inch is divided into ten parts, with each division being .10 in. The 50 scale is for scaling dimensions that require additional accuracy because each inch has 50 divisions. This makes each increment 1/30 in. or .02 in. (1 4 50 5 .02). The Figure shows a comparison between the mechanical engineer's scales. The mechanical engineer’s scale also has half-size 1:2 (1/2" 5 1"), quarter-size 1:4 (1/4" 5 1"), and eighth-size 1:8 (1/8" 5 1") options for reducing the drawing scale (see Figure 2.28). Figure 2.29 on page 53 shows a drawing that is represented at full scale (1:1), half-scale (1:2), and quarter-scale (1:4) for comparison.

OB体育ob体育官网 MEDIA

The term media , as applied here, refers to the material on which you create drawings, such as paper or polyester film. The two main types of media used for manual drafting are vellum and polyester film, with vellum being the most commonly used. Several factors other than cost also influence the purchase and use of drafting media, including durability, smoothness, erasability, dimensional stability, and transparency.

Durability is a consideration if the original drawing will be extensively used. Originals can tear or wrinkle, and the images can become difficult to see if the drawings are used often. Smoothness relates to how the medium accepts line work and lettering. The material should be easy to draw on so that the image is dark and sharp without a great deal of effort on your part.

Erasability is important because errors need to be corrected, and changes are frequently made. When images are erased, ghosting—the residue that remains when lines are dif- ficult to remove—should be kept to a minimum. Unsightly ghost images reproduce in a print. Materials that have good erasability are easy to clean. Dimensional stability is the quality of the media to remain unchanged in size because of the effects of atmospheric conditions such as heat, cold, and humidity. Some materials are more dimensionally stable than others.

Reproduction

One thing most designers, engineers, architects, and drafters have in common is that their finished drawings are intended for reproduction. The goal of every professional is to produce drawings of the highest quality that give the best possible prints when reproduced. Many of the factors that influence the selection of media for drafting have been described; however, the most important factor in reproduction.

The primary combination that achieves the best reproduction is the blackest and most opaque lines or images on the most transparent base or material. Vellum and polyester film make good prints if the drawing is well done. If the only concern is the quality of the reproduction, ink on polyester film is the best choice. However, some products have better characteristics than others. Some individuals prefer certain products. It is up to individuals and companies to determine the combinations that work best for their needs and budgets.

SHEET SIZE AND FORMAT

STANDARDS

Most professional drawings follow specific standards for sheet size and format. The Australian Drafting Standard specifies the exact sheet size and format for engineering drawings created for the manufacturing industry. Other disciplines can follow Australian Drafting standards. However, architectural, civil, and structural drawings used in the construction industry generally have a different sheet format and may use unique sheet sizes, such as architectural sheet sizes. Follow sheet size and format standards to improve readability, handling, filing, and reproduction; this will also help ensure that all necessary information appears on the sheet.

When selecting a sheet size, consider the size of objects drawn; the drawing scale; the amount of additional content on the sheet, such as a border, title block, and notes; and drafting standards. In general, choose a sheet size that is large enough to show all elements of the drawing using an appropriate scale and without crowding. For example, the dimensioned views of a machine part that occupies a total area of 15 in. 3 6 in. (381 mm 3 153 mm), can typically fit on a 17 in. 3 11 in.   (B size) or 420 mm 3 297 mm (A3 size) sheet.

DIAZO REPRODUCTION

Diazo prints are also known as ozalid dry prints and blue-line prints. The diazo reproduction process has been mostly replaced by photocopy reproduction and the use of CADD files for printing and plotting. Diazo printing uses a process that involves an ultraviolet light passing through a translucent original drawing to expose a chemically coated paper or print material under-neath. The light does not go through the dense, black lines on the original drawing, so the chemical coating on the paper beneath the lines remains. The print material is then exposed to ammonia vapour, which activates the remaining chemical coat-ing to produce blue, black, or brown lines on a white or colour-less background. The print that results is a diazo, or blue-line print, not a blueprint. The term blueprint is a generic term used to refer to diazo prints even though they are not true blueprints. Originally, the blueprint process created a print with white lines on a dark blue background.

PHOTOCOPY REPRODUCTION

Photocopy printers are also known as engineering copiers when used in an engineering or architectural environment. A photocopy printer is a machine for photographically reproducing material, especially by xerography. Xerography is a dry photographic or photocopying process in which a negative image formed by a resinous powder on an electrically charged plate is electrically transferred to and fixed as a positive image on a paper or other copying surface. Prints can be made on bond paper, vellum, polyester fi lm, coloured paper, or other translucent materials. The reproduction capabilities also include instant print sizes ranging from 45 percent to 141 percent of the original size.
Larger or smaller sizes are possible by enlarging or reducing in two or more steps. Almost any large original can be converted into a smaller-sized reproducible print, and then the secondary original can be used to generate additional photocopy prints for distribution, inclusion in manuals, or for more convenient handling. In addition, a random collection of mixed-scale drawings can be enlarged or reduced and converted to one standard scale and format. Reproduction clarity is so good that halftone illustrations (photographs) and solid or fine line work have excellent resolution and density.
The photocopying process and CADD printing and plotting have mostly replaced the diazo process. Photocopying has many advantages over diazo printing, including quality repro-duction in many sizes, use of most common materials, and no hazardous ammonia. A CADD system allows you to produce a quality hard copy print quickly. A hard copy is a physical drawing produced by a printer or plotter. The hard copy can be printed on vellum for further reproduction using the diazo or photocopy process.

PROPERLY FOLDING PRINTS

Prints come in a variety of sizes ranging from small, 8½ 3 11 in., to 34 3 44 in. or larger. It is easy to fi le the 8½ 3 11 in. size prints because standard file cabinets are designed to hold this size. There are file cabinets available called flat files that can be used to store full-size unfolded prints. However, many companies use standard file cabinets. Larger prints must be properly folded before they can be filed in a standard file cabinet. It is also important to fold a print properly if it is to be mailed.
Folding large prints is much like folding a road map. Folding is done in a pattern of bends that results in the title block and sheet identifi cation ending up on the front. This is desirable for easy identifi cation in the file cabinet. The proper method used to fold prints also aids in unfolding or refolding prints.

MICROFILM

Microfilm is photographic reproduction on film of a drawing or other document that is highly reduced for ease in storage and sending from one place to another. When needed, equipment is available for enlargement of the microfi lm to printed old vellum becomes yellowed and brittle. In addition, in case of a fire or other kind of destruction, originals can be lost and endless hours of drafting vanish. For these and other reasons, microfilm has been used for storage and reproduction of original drawings. Although microfilm storage of old drawings still exists in some companies, CADD files have replaced the use of microfilm for most modern applications.

CADD VERSUS MICROFILM

Microfilm was once an industry standard for storing and accessing drawings. Large international companies especially relied on the microfilm network to ensure that all worldwide subcontractors, vendors, clients, and others involved with a project were able to reproduce needed draw-ings and related documents. One advantage of microfilm was the ability to archive drawings—that is, store some-thing permanently for safekeeping.
The use of CADD in the engineering and construction industries has made it possible to create and store drawings electronically on a computer, optical disk, or other media. This makes it possible to retrieve stored drawings easily and quickly. A big advantage of CADD file storage involves using CADD drawings. When you retrieve CADD-generated drawings, they are of the same quality as when they were originally drawn. You can use CADD drawings to make multiple copies or to redesign a product efficiently. In addition to the maintained original quality of the stored CADD drawing, the drawing file can be sent anywhere in the world over the Internet or within a company's intranet. The Internet is a worldwide network of communication between computers, and intranet links computers within a company or an organization.

CAD/CAM

The optimum efficiency of design and manufacturing methods is achieved without producing a single paper copy of a drawing of a part. Computer networks can directly link engineering and manufacturing departments by integrating computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing or machining (CAM) software. This integration is referred to as CAD/CAM. The drafter or designer creates a 3-D model or 2-D engineering drawing of a part using CADD software. CAM software is then used to convert the geometry to computer numerical control (CNC) data that is read by the numerically controlled machine tools. Often, the CAD/CAM system is electronically connected to the machine tool. This electronic connection is called networking. This direct link is referred to as direct numerical control (DNC), and it requires no additional media such as paper, disks, CDs, or tape to transfer information from engineering to manufacturing.

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cad professional

Facts of the Drafting Professional Perspective

cad drafter professional PROFESSIONAL PERSPECTIVE

There is a significant difference between an individual trained in the theories, principles, standards, and requirements of the career field and a true professional. Being a professional is more than holding a credential. A certificate or diploma is only an indication of knowledge in the area you have chosen to study. Many recently educated people search for a large salary, but they generally have only a moderate understanding of their career field and little or no training as a true professional.

The facts are simple. When employed, you typically sign an agreement indicating job requirements, work times, vacations, sick days, insurance provisions, and employer expectations.

Many employers have a dress code, a code of ethics, and other provisions you must follow. As an employee, you are an adult who is being paid to make things happen. You are a part of a working machine, but you are not the main wheel that makes it turn. Do your job, do it well, and keep the wheels turning, which is your primary function in an entry-level position.

In becoming a true professional, you need to keep in mind that with the availability of the Internet and other media, that your potential employer can check up on you and in many cases find out more than you want them to know. Facebook, MySpace, blogs, and other social networking areas on the Internet can be very damaging to your career if misused. As with your professional attitude, you need to keep some things private.

PROFESSIONAL NETWORK

You do need a professional network, and there are many of them such as LinkedIn or Plaxo that can help you network on a professional level. Now is the time to exhibit responsibilities to yourself and your employer.

In my current role, I am in constant contact with the leaders of the industry, representing some of the most prestigious manufacturing, engineering, architectural, and industrial firms in the world. When discussing the employment of future drafters and designers, I often request information on the reasons one individual is chosen over another when they are equally qualified. The answer is consistent; they employ those who reflect professionalism in all aspects of their individuality and areas of training.

PROFESSIONAL FACTS

The following are 15 facts that make you a professional:

  1. You must understand that your education begins after you have achieved your Your credentials only expose you to the knowledge and skills needed to perform the job. Real learning comes from day-to-day experience over many years.
  2. Consider the interview process, the interviewer, and the type of company when seeking to Investigate the company and determine what they do, their geographic area, and who owns the company. The company mission and employee expectations should match your goals and objectives.
  3. If you are seeking a career, do not take a job just to be Dissatisfaction may show in your work and performance, and it may result in you seeking new employment or being terminated. Employment changes can make it difficult to becoming reemployed. You should always keep a position for two or more years.
  4. Leave your attitude at You should show gratitude for your employment. Be proud that this company thinks you have the potential to be a part of its working family. Keep in mind that you are not the owner.
  5. Keep your opinion to yourself, focus on your job, and shape your This will bring you more attention and give you more excellent opportunities. Share improvement ideas with your supervisor. Ask if your work is acceptable and if there is anything that you can do better. Accept criticism with modesty.
  6. Many co-workers will do anything to advance, which is an unethical fact of survival in This activity can lead to discontent. Remember, you work for your supervisor, your job is to improve the product, produce a product, and increase company profits. Negative actions toward you by co-workers reflect their own inability to carry out their duties.
  7. Acting professional is a big part of your new You hold credentials, and with them comes a code of ethics that professionals follow. Here are some guidelines: (1) Be at your workstation, the computer turned on, chair adjusted, and ready to work a few minutes before work time. (2) Take your breaks at the designated. This is when you typically go to the restroom, get a coffee refill, or eat a snack. Work time is for production. (3) Your scheduled lunchtime includes You may find it more convenient to eat at work and have time to relax or do personal things. (4) Quitting time can be exciting, but do not stop early just to be out the door at 5 P.M. sharp. Complete a project and then deliver it to your supervisor if it takes a few minutes. You will have a head start on tomorrow and your career.
  8. Dress well for your interview and on the job, providing a professional Men should wear a shirt and tie, jacket, dress pants, and polished leather shoes with laces. Women should wear professional style clothing, fitting to the employment atmosphere. Women should avoid wearing dresses for the interview. Women should wear dress pants or a skirt, blouse, and matching jacket, or a pants suit, and avoid necklines more than four fingers below the high point of your sternum. Patent leather or athletic shoes should not be worn by either sex. Shoes should coordinate with your clothing and should be flats or low heels. Avoid noisy shoes. Wear professional colour such as navy, black, or grey. Do not wear a white, yellow, or chartreuse jacket. Your shirt or blouse should be white, light blue, or a pastel colour. Men should wear a tie that coordinates with the jacket and pants and wear a belt that matches shoe colour. In today’s liberal workforce, unisex clothing is readily available, and some of it looks sharp. However, in the interview process, make sure your clothing is cut to fit your body style. Accessories should be moderate, with no visible necklaces or dangling earrings. Cologne and perfume should be very subdued. For men and women, exposed body piercings in your nose, lips, and tongues and multiple sets of earrings should not be worn at the interview.
  9. Personal choices should be used on personal time or when found to be acceptable. Otherwise, you could jeopardize your employment opportunity. Keep in mind, you are applying for a job, and you do not know the preference of the company or the interviewer. The company makes the rules. Do not try to change policy if you want to keep your place. Observe the company dress code, so you know how to dress when you are employed.As a new hire, you should dress conservatively even if you see others are wearing jeans and polo shirts. If every- one wears shirts and ties, you do the same and make sure you have a jacket. Having a jacket or sport coat is good in case you need to attend a meeting. If the job requires you to go to manufacturing or to the field, you should have an appropriate change of clothes or cover-up. Finally, regardless of the dress code, keep a change of clothes in your car and be ready for an emergency dress up or dress down in a few minutes.
  10. Self-improvement is a good investment in the job. Research on work, processes, clients, and another project-related issue while on your own time. This can improve your production, broaden your mind, discover new project ideas, find software solutions and production methods, or network with other professionals.
  11. Most employment communication is proprietary and should not be discussed with anyone other than your supervisor or involved co-workers. Do not take information from work to home, unless approved by your supervisor.
  12. Write personal e-mails and make personal phone calls after work or on your personal cell phone outside the of- fice during break or at lunch. Using company equipment and company time is only for company business.
  13. After employment, you need to start preparing for you next move up the career ladder. Your employer may offer educational benefits. If you have access to the Internet at home, you can do webinars and take online training and technical training or expand your formal education. Your new knowledge, ability to speak on the technical subjects, and performance at work indicate your improvement without bragging. Provide information about your expanded learning during your annual reviews.
  14. Completion of your education is only one step in the overall progression of your career track. You should seek industry certification with a professional organization. Certification is based on industry standards and required knowledge at a specific level in the profession, and it is offered by industry organizations who are experts in the field. Certification competencies provide minimum performance and knowledge levels to your employer. Certifications can be related to software, codes, standards, technical writing, and other subjects. Additional training reinforces your abilities and your employability.
  15. Keep a work journal as an organizational tool and to improve your growth as a professional. Include specific assignment information, assignment performance, individuals involved, specific times and places related to the assignment, when you go to lunch, change projects, talk to a co-worker about a previous project, or attend a meeting about a new project. Entries made by time and date will stand firm in a challenge. The more you document, the better.
  16. While in school and after, you should be a member of any professional organization that relates to your profession. ADDA and Skills USA offer student memberships for the drafting profession. By being involved in professional associations, you will find a network of professionals who can assist you in every phase of your career path and offer opportunities, advice, and guidance you cannot receive anywhere else. As you leave your school and enter the workforce, you should retain your membership in the professional organization and become as active as possible.

Most organizations provide you with professionally rewarding volunteer opportunities on committees and groups to assist the profession. As you gain experience, you will see yourself working on projects with little assistance, moving up the corporate steps, being given more responsibility and increased compensation, and having opportunities you hoped for when you were first employed.

SUMMERY

The following summarizes our profession:

Drafting is the foundation and stepping-stone of any aspiring architect and engineer. It is a tedious profession, with days filled with non- stop drawing and making models of designs. It is through this process that one is able to learn to develop new skills and be introduced to styles that can be used as inspiration for personal design preferences in the future. Drafting moulds the builders and designers of the future. Drafting is the profession of the hardworking and the persevering, the patient and the creative, the ambitious and the proud.

Australian Design & Drafting Services provide excellent service for CAD Design and  Drafting.  Contact Us  for more info

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